Table 11-1 from G&F: KNOW THIS! Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Table 11-1 from G&F: KNOW THIS! Deck (63)
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1

What are the 7 main Gland categories in Table 11-1?

(and sub gland categories if you want)

  1. Pituitary
    • Anterior lobe
    • Posterior lobe
  2. Thyroid
  3. Parathyroids
  4. Adrenal
    • Cortex
    • Medulla
  5. Pancreas
  6. Gonads
    • Ovaries
    • Testes
  7. Adipose Tissue (I believe it is a typo in the chart that this is listed under gonads based on reading the text on pg 456 which says "Adipose tissue can be classified as an endocrine gland because it secretes several hormones responsible for metabolism, hunger, vasoconstriction, and cellular growth and development. The concept of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ is quite new, but it is clear that molecules secreted into the bloodstreeam by fat, such as adiponectin and leptin, act on target organs at distant sites.") Also, since when has Adipose tissue been exclusive to gonads?

2

What are the two sub-divisions of the Pituitary gland?

  1. Anterior lobe
  2. Posterior lobe

3

What are the 6 hormones of the Anterior Pituitary lobe?

  1. Somatotropin (growth hormone [GH])
  2. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
  3. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
  4. Luteinizing hormone (LH)
  5. Prolactin (luteotropic hormone)
  6. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

4

What is an alternate name for growth hormone?

Somatotropin

5

What is an alternate name for prolactin?

luteotropic hormone

6

Somatotropin target tissues (3)

  1. Bones
  2. Muscles
  3. Organs

**Somatotropin  = Growth Hormone

7

Basic action of somatotropin

Retains nitrogen to promote protein anabolism (basically causes growth)

*Somatatropin = Growth hormone

**Anabolism = the constructive phase of metabolism, in which the body cells synthesize protoplasm for growth and repair; the opposite of catabolism.(http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/anabolism)

8

Target of TSH

Thyroid gland

(TSH = Thyroid stimulating hormone)

9

Basic Action of TSH

Promotes secretory activity

(I think this means it promotes secretion of hormones in thyroid: thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronin (T3) and also Calcitonin)

10

FSH Target tissues (2)

  1. Ovaries,
  2. Seminiferous tubules (located in testes)

11

FSH Basic Action (3)

Promotes

  1. development of overian follicle,
  2. secretion of estrogen, and
  3. maturation of sperm

12

Prolactin Target Tissues (2)

  1. Corpus Luteum
  2. Breast

**Prolactin = luteotropic hormone

***The corpus luteum is a temporary endocrine structure involved in ovulation and early pregnancy. The corpus luteum develops from an ovarian follicle during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle or oestrous cycle, following the release of a secondary oocyte from the follicle during ovulation. (wikipedia and radiopaedia.org)

13

Prolactin Basic Action (3)

  1. Maintains corpus luteum and
  2. maintains progesterone sectretion
  3. stimulates milk secretion

Prolactin = luteotropic hormone

14

ACTH Target

Adrenal cortex

(cortex of the adrenal gland)

15

ACTH Basic Action

Stimulates secretory activity [of the adrenal cortex]

**Adrenal cortex produces mineralocoricoids [aldosterone], glucocorticoids [cortisol], and sex hormone [testosterone, estrogen, progesterone]

16

What are the two hormones of the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland?

  1. antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
  2. Oxytocin

17

ADH Target tissue

Distal tubules of kidney

18

ADH Basic Action

Resorbs water (into the distal tubules of the kidney - therefore it prevents water loss from the body)

19

Oxytocin Target Tissue

Uterus

20

Oxytocin Basic Action

Stimulates contraction (of the uterus)

21

What are the 2-3 hormones of the thyroid gland?

  1. Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3)
  2. Calcitonin

22

Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3) target tissues

Widespread

23

Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3) Basic Action (5-8)

  • Regulate
    1. oxidation of body cells and
    2. growth metaboilism
  • influlence
    1. gluconeogenisis, (creation of new glucose)
    2. mobilization of fats, and
    3. exchange of
    • water,
    • electrolytes, and
    • protein 

24

Calcitonin Target

Skeleton

25

Calcitonin Basic Action (2?)

Calcium and phosphorus metabolism

(encourages lowering Ca2+ levels in the blood, which preserves Ca2+ in the bone)

26

What are the hormones of the parathyroid glands?

Parathyroid hormone (PH)

27

Parathyroid Hormone Target (3)

  1. Bone
  2. Kidney
  3. Intestinal tract

28

Parathyroid hormone Basic Action (1-3?)

Essential for calcium and phoshorus metabolism and calcification of bone.

(incourages Ca2+ levels in the blood by encouraging relase of Ca2+ from the bone, which may reduce Ca2+ in the bone)

29

What are the two main portions of the Adrenal gland?

  1. Cortex
  2. Medulla

30

What are the three categories of hormones relased by the Adrenal Cortex

  1. Mineralocorticoids (main example aldosterone)
  2. Glucocorticoids (main example cortisol)
  3. Sex hormones (testosterone, estrogen, progesterone)