Flashcards in Sympathetic NS and Immunity Deck (13)
The _____ and the _________ are the two major adaptive systems of the body
brain and immune system
During an immune response the brain and the immune system __________ and this process is essential for maintaining homeostasis.
"talk to each other"
Two major pathway systems are involved in this cross-talk between the brain and the immune system, what are they?
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS)
Evidence accumulated over the last 20 years suggests that what neurotransmitter fulfills the criteria for neurotransmitter/neuromodulator in lymphoid organs
Thus, primary and secondary lymphoid organs receive extensive __________ innervation
Subluxation _______ brain / cortical summation.
**Reduced brain summation dis-inhibits the sympathetic nervous system
Reduced brain summation dis-inhibits the sympathetic nervous system. Hence, the sympathetic nervous system is chronically ________, releasing more catecholamines:
- norepinephrine is released from the _________,
- epinephrine is released from the __________
post-ganglionic sympathetic efferents
This increase in sympathetically-derived catecholamines reduces the systemic type 1 (Th1) immune system response causing a shift to __________
Th2 Immune Response
The most extensive and physiologically most diverse component of the efferent nervous system is the____________, which sends axons to all parts of the body
sympathetic nervous system (SNS)
T or F
The sympathetic fibers also control blood flow to these immune organs which may influence Lymphocyte traffic and therefore immune cell responses.
The ______ provides the major integrative and regulatory role between the CNS and the immune system