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Flashcards in SY4 World Sociology COPY Deck (226)
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1

Global Inequalities

Refers to the uneven distribution of resources such as money and power within the world and how opportunities related to education, employment and health are also skewed

2

The Champagne glass world

A visual way of representing global inequalities in income distribution

3

Income

Refers to an amount of money earned in a certain period

4

Wealth

Refers to the value of money and other assets owned (e.g. land, property, stocks and shares)

5

Poverty

A condition characterised by severe deprivation of basic human needs - including food, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, health, shelter, education and information

6

Majority world

Refers to the ‘Third World’ and to the fact that more than two-thirds of the world’s population live there. As geographically most of these countries are in the south some people also use the term ‘Global South’

7

Minority world

Refers to the rich ‘First World’ where a minority of the world’s population live. As geographically most of these countries are in the north some people also use the term ‘Global North’.

8

Development

The progress a society is making in improving the quality of life for humans i.e. 'good change'

9

Economic development

Measuring development by focusing on economic growth and the wealth of nations

10

GDP

Measures the economic output of a country by calculating the sum value of all the goods and services produced for money in the economy

11

GDP per capita

The Gross Domestic Product of a country divided by the number of people living there

12

Western societies

Europe, The Americas, Australia and New Zealand

13

GNP

Calculated in the same way as GDP, except the measure includes wealth generated by a population out of activities overseas; thus considering international trade and factories based in other countries

14

GINI Index

A measure of income inequality within a given society with higher values (maximum of 100) indicating more inequality

15

Human development

Is about expanding the richness of human life, rather than simply the richness of the economy in which human beings live. Includes social aspects of development including education, health and the rights of women

16

Composite measures of development

A measure of development that combines different statistical indicators (e.g. the Human Development Index).

17

Human Development Index

A composite measure of development calculated by the United Nations by combining statistics on life expectancy, education and wealth.

18

United Nations

An international political organisation set up after World War Two to promote peace, human rights and development

19

Sustainable development

Development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs

20

Prosperity

Often synonymous with wealth but also includes others factors which can be independent of wealth to varying degrees, such as happiness and health

21

Ecological footprint

It represents the amount of biologically productive land and sea area necessary to supply the resources a human population consumes, and to assimilate associated waste.

22

Global hectare

The unit of measurement for ecological footprints 1 = 10,000 square metres

23

Climate change

Change in global or regional climate patterns, in particular a change apparent from the mid to late 20th century onwards and attributed largely to the increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide produced by the use of fossil fuels

24

Precautionary principle

The idea that when human health and the environment are significantly at risk it is better to adopt a cautious approach

25

Buddhist Economics

A perspective associated with the work of Ernst Schumacher. It is critical of the environmental and social costs of western consumerism. For Schumacher the key to well-being is not consumption but meaningful work that allows human beings to be creative

26

Consumerism

The pressure that society puts on individuals to purchase goods and service for money in ever increasing amounts

27

Happy Planet Index

A composite measure of development which takes account of life expectancy, self-reports of happiness and ecological footprints

28

Millennium Development Goals

Development targets set in 2000 by the United Nations

29

Sustainable Development Goals

These 17 aspirational goals have replaced the Millennium Development Goals from 2016

30

Modernisation Theory

Dominant development theory of the 1960s based on the work of Walt Rostow. In a nutshell: Development means becoming more like us