Flashcards in SY4 World Sociology COPY Deck (226)
Refers to the uneven distribution of resources such as money and power within the world and how opportunities related to education, employment and health are also skewed
The Champagne glass world
A visual way of representing global inequalities in income distribution
Refers to an amount of money earned in a certain period
Refers to the value of money and other assets owned (e.g. land, property, stocks and shares)
A condition characterised by severe deprivation of basic human needs - including food, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, health, shelter, education and information
Refers to the ‘Third World’ and to the fact that more than two-thirds of the world’s population live there. As geographically most of these countries are in the south some people also use the term ‘Global South’
Refers to the rich ‘First World’ where a minority of the world’s population live. As geographically most of these countries are in the north some people also use the term ‘Global North’.
The progress a society is making in improving the quality of life for humans i.e. 'good change'
Measuring development by focusing on economic growth and the wealth of nations
Measures the economic output of a country by calculating the sum value of all the goods and services produced for money in the economy
GDP per capita
The Gross Domestic Product of a country divided by the number of people living there
Europe, The Americas, Australia and New Zealand
Calculated in the same way as GDP, except the measure includes wealth generated by a population out of activities overseas; thus considering international trade and factories based in other countries
A measure of income inequality within a given society with higher values (maximum of 100) indicating more inequality
Is about expanding the richness of human life, rather than simply the richness of the economy in which human beings live. Includes social aspects of development including education, health and the rights of women
Composite measures of development
A measure of development that combines different statistical indicators (e.g. the Human Development Index).
Human Development Index
A composite measure of development calculated by the United Nations by combining statistics on life expectancy, education and wealth.
An international political organisation set up after World War Two to promote peace, human rights and development
Development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs
Often synonymous with wealth but also includes others factors which can be independent of wealth to varying degrees, such as happiness and health
It represents the amount of biologically productive land and sea area necessary to supply the resources a human population consumes, and to assimilate associated waste.
The unit of measurement for ecological footprints 1 = 10,000 square metres
Change in global or regional climate patterns, in particular a change apparent from the mid to late 20th century onwards and attributed largely to the increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide produced by the use of fossil fuels
The idea that when human health and the environment are significantly at risk it is better to adopt a cautious approach
A perspective associated with the work of Ernst Schumacher. It is critical of the environmental and social costs of western consumerism. For Schumacher the key to well-being is not consumption but meaningful work that allows human beings to be creative
The pressure that society puts on individuals to purchase goods and service for money in ever increasing amounts
Happy Planet Index
A composite measure of development which takes account of life expectancy, self-reports of happiness and ecological footprints
Millennium Development Goals
Development targets set in 2000 by the United Nations
Sustainable Development Goals
These 17 aspirational goals have replaced the Millennium Development Goals from 2016