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Flashcards in SY1 Youth Cultures Deck (221)
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1

Youth

The period between childhood and adulthood

2

Adolescence

A term first used by Stanley Hall in 1904 to describe the period of physical and psychological development from the onset of puberty to maturity

3

Chronological age

Age in years

4

‘Storm and stress’

A phrase associated with the idea that adolescence is often regarded as a turbulent life phase where puberty causes angst and aggression. This view was challenged by Mead’s research on adolescent girls in Western Samoa

5

Social construction of youth

The idea that youth is affected by social and cultural factors and will therefore be experienced in different ways depending on the society you grow up in

6

Liminal

A term used to describe the transitional nature of youth where people are ‘in-betweeners’ i.e. neither children or adults

7

Traditional societies

Non-modern (pre-industrial) societies

8

Western societies

Europe, The Americas, Australia and New Zealand

9

Industrialisation

The process whereby a society moves from a predominantly agricultural base to one where the economy is dominated by manufacturing (based on mechanised mass production)

10

Child labour

Refers to the employment of children. As children were quickly absorbed into the adult world of work in the 19th C this meant the idea of youth as a separate social category didn’t exist at this time

11

Legislation

This term refers to laws. The legal prohibition of child labour created more leisure opportunities for the young and the space for a youth culture to develop

12

Teenager

A term used after WW2 to describe youth in the USA

13

Tweenager

A relatively new term used to describe children of about 7-12. This term implies that ‘youth’ is beginning earlier than the teenage years with children focusing on pop culture and adult celebrities at a younger age than before

14

‘Disappearance of childhood’

Postman uses this phrase when blaming the media for exposing children to the adult world too young and sexualising them. The term 'tweenager' is connected to this argument

15

Mainstream culture

The way of life that most people follow or that is considered 'normal'. A key debate within the Sociology of Youth Culture is the extent to which youth cultures are different from this ‘normal culture’

16

Youth culture

A term used to describe the beliefs, behaviours, styles, and interests of young people. An emphasis on clothes, popular music, sports, slang, and dating set adolescents apart from other age groups, giving them what many believe is a distinct culture of their own

17

Youth subcultures

Distinctive groups of youths, within the wider youth culture, who stand out in terms of their style, dress, music taste and attitudes

18

Spectacular youth subcultures

This is a term that has been used to describe some of the most highly visible subcultures of the 1950s-80s e.g. Teddy Boys, punks, skinheads. They had flamboyant and recognisable styles and often had confrontational attitudes

19

Argot

Slang and patterns of speech only understood by the members of that culture

20

Post war affluence

This refers to young people becoming richer and having more money to spend after WW2. Big business realized the opportunity to market new products specifically aimed at young people, such as records, clothes, cosmetics, magazines and entertainment

21

Demographic bulge

This refers to people born during the post–World War II baby boom

22

Generation

All of the people born and living at about the same time, regarded collectively

23

Generation gap

When the norms and attitudes of the young are diverging from those of their parents’ generation

24

Counter-cultures

Groups which are actively opposed to some of the aspects of the mainstream culture. E.g., subcultures that present proposals as to how society ought to be organised that contrast with existing social arrangements. (e.g. hippies)

25

Teddy Boys

A working class subculture typified by young men wearing clothes that were partly inspired by the styles worn by dandies in the Edwardian period

26

Mods

Significant elements of this subculture include fashion (often tailor-made suits); music (including soul, ska, and R&B and originally modern jazz); and motor scooters (usually Lambretta or Vespa)

27

Hippies

A counterculture that started in the United States and United Kingdom during the mid-1960s. They created their own communities, listened to psychedelic music, embraced the sexual revolution, and used drugs to explore altered states of consciousness

28

Skinheads

A subculture that originated among working class youths in London, England, in the 1960s. Named for their close-cropped or shaven heads.

29

Punks

A subculture that emerged during the mid to the late 70s, associated with bands such as the Sex Pistols and The Clash. Common values include anti-authoritarianism, a DIY ethic and non-conformity

30

Goths

Styles of dress within this subculture are associated with dark attire (often black), pale face makeup and black hair. The scene continues to draw interest from a large audience decades after its emergence.