SY1 The Building Blocks/Theory Flashcards Preview

A2 Sociology (Knowledge) > SY1 The Building Blocks/Theory > Flashcards

Flashcards in SY1 The Building Blocks/Theory Deck (221)
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1

Society

A group of people who occupy a particular territory and who share a culture

2

Sociological imagination


"The vivid awareness of the relationship between personal experience and the wider society." (C. Wright Mills)

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Sociology

The study of how society is organized and how we experience life

4

Medicalisation

The process by which human conditions and problems come to be defined and treated as medical conditions

5

Social forces

Anything humans create that influences or pressures individuals to interact, behave, respond or think in certain ways

6

Fundamental attribution error

The tendency to favour personal explanations for an individual’s behaviour over social explanations.

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Social institutions

The various organised social arrangements which are found in societies. For example: family types, the education system, religion, media, the political system, economy and so on (also known as 'social structure')

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The 'Structure' and 'Agency' debate

The debate about whether individuals have 'free will' (agency) or are shaped and determined by social forces (structure)

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Sociological concepts

The ideas sociologists use to make sense of society

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Culture

The shared way of life of a group of people. It is a set of learned behaviours and beliefs that characterize a society or social group

11

Material culture

Physical objects that have cultural meaning

12

Non-material culture

Refers to the norms and values of a culture - i.e. beliefs, values and behaviours

13

Norms

Rules or informal guidelines about what is considered correct or incorrect social behaviour in a particular group or society

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Values

General beliefs about what is right and wrong, and about the important standards which are worth maintaining and achieving in society

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Mores

Norms that are more widely observed and have greater moral significance than others

16

Ethnocentrism

The belief that your culture is superior than another or that your culture is the “right” way to live.

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Cultural relativism

The opposite of ethnocentrism: means that we respect other cultures and treat them as "as good as one's own".

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Cultural diversity

The existence of a variety of cultural or ethnic groups within a society

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Subculture

A distinctive culture that exists within the larger societal culture

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Collectivist cultures

These are cultures which tend to emphasise belonging to the group as more important than personal freedom (e.g. Japan & China)

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Individualistic cultures

These are cultures which tend to emphasise individual freedom and personal gain, sometimes at the expense of others (e.g. USA)

22

Social change

Refers to an alteration in the way in which society is ordered. This may lead to the development of new norms and values.

23

Custom

A traditional and widely accepted social norm that is specific to a particular society, place, or time

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Role

Behavioural expectations based on the social positions an individual holds in society

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Traditions

Long-established beliefs and customs that have been passed from one generation to the next

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Socialisation

The process by which individuals learn and internalise their culture's norms and values (Talcott Parsons). Also known as 'cultural transmission'.

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Primary socialisation

The first stage in the process of learning and internalising the culture of society. This usually involves the child learning from the immediate family in the home.

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Secondary socialisation

This is the second stage of the socialisation process. It occurs after the period of early childhood and continues throughout adult life

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Agents of socialisation

Any social group or institution that passes on cultural norms and values to others e.g. The Family, Media, School etc.

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Focal agency

The agency of socialisation which, at various points in our lives is the most dominant