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Flashcards in Surveys and Questionnaires Deck (15)
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1

Surveys

composed of a series of questions that are posed to a group of subjects

2

T/F surveys can be conducted as a written or electronic questionnaire

True

Can also be conducted as an oral interview

3

Questionnaires

Structured surveys, self administered

4

Advantages of surveys and questionnaires

generally more efficient than interviews because respondents complete on their own time

data can be gathered from a large sample in a wide geographical distribution in a short time

standardized written forms used to reduce potential bias from interactions with the interviewer

particularly useful for assessing attitudes/values

5

disadvantages of surveys and questionnaires

not as useful for studying behavior that require objective observation

potential for misunderstanding or misinterpreting questions or responses

accuracy or motivation of respondent unknown

6

Major concerns of surveys and questionnaires

1. Low Return Rate
-60-80% excellent
-30-60% for most studies

2. Self Report
-researcher doesn't directly observe behavior

-always some potential for bias

-subject to recall bias when asked to remember past events

-generally valid for variables such as injury, mobility function, etc.

-only direct way to obtain information for perceptions, fears, motivations, and attitudes

7

Design of surveys

1. identify questions
2. formulate hypothesis
3. develop a questionnaire outline
4. review any existing instruments
5. design the instrument
6. preliminary drafts
7. pilot testing and revisions

8

Open ended questions

ask respondents to answer in their own words

useful for asking for feelings/opinions without bias by researcher

used in pilot study to determine range or responses, then converted to MC item

difficult to code and analyze

9

Closed end questions

should be exhaustive and mutually exclusive

provide MC questions

easily coded and provide great uniformity across responses

doesn't allow respondents to express their own personal viewpoints

10

ordinal scales

used with ordinal variables:
pain measured by min, mod, severe
function by min assist, mod, max, dependent

11

Systematic review

uses explicit methods to identify, select, appraise, and synthesize results

12

Narrative review

good source of information on background of a specific topic

doesn't include a detailed description of methods/criteria used to select/evaluate articles

13

Meta analysis

synthesizes results as part of a systematic review

uses quantitative methods to develop single overall estimate of intervention effect

14

Types of bias

selection
performance
attrition
detection

15

Forest plots

results for meta analysis

what is direction of effect?
what is size of effect?
whether effects are consistent across studies