Flashcards in Surveillance Deck (32)
What is surveillance? (in reference to epi)
Systematic continuous observation of populations and collection and analysis of date from many varied sources
What are the two main reasons we use surveillance?
1. Rapid detection and timely, appropriate response to important health events
2. Production and communication of valid information about the health and disease status of the population
What are the major goals of animal health surveillance?
Maintain and improve:
Animal health and welfare
Economic viability of animal based food production systems
Protection of public health: control of zoonotic and foodborne diseases
Why is early detection important in the event of disease outbreaks?
Early detection prevents catastrophic losses and costs
Direct costs: dead animals, tx for sick animals, lost productivity
Indirect costs: lost markets and consumer confidence, losses in tourism etc
How does surveillance support dz control during an outbreak?
By using situational intelligence - information is collected and given to epidemiologist to analyze to project the outbreak movements/trends to get a better handle on it
*also identify suspect or infected farms for stamping out
What is an example of a control eradication program?
Test and slaughter programs
Are good surveillance programs beneficial or detrimental to trade?
OIE member nations have specific surveillance regulations that are essential for trade (food animals and their products)
T/F: Borders can be closed if a nation has substandard surveillance, even if no disease is detected
Surveillance detects failure of _____ and ______ security programs.
Biosecurity and border security
What are the 3 basic components of surveillance?
Are disease the outbreak investigation and diagnostic pathology part of the Detection phase of surveillance?
Observation of a population or collection, analysis and interpretation of data from a population
What is animal health surveillance?
Surveillance of animals for diseases of importance to animals and people
Surveillance of people for human diseases is considered ________
Public health surveillance
What is biosurveillance?
Surveillance of humans, animals, and plants for dz affecting any or all of them
What are the 4 types of surveillance?
What is the most common form of surveillance?
What is passive surveillance?
Submission is initiated by and at the discretion of the sample/data provider;
**The Veterinarian or health authority does very little to select subjects for sampling or information
What are some examples of passive surveillance?
Reportable dz programs
Sero-surveys at auction markets and slaughter plants
Diagnostic laboratory submission surveillance
What is syndromic surveillance?
Collecting and analyzing data based on clinical signs only. (from medical records)
Researcher chooses what clinical sign they want to collect data for
What are some cons to passive surveillance?
Not a representative sample of the population
Will not work for less valued animals that do not use veterinary services
Does not account for animals that have not been reported
Little control over who provides the data and samples
Is syndromic surveillance usually short term or long term?
Long. these studies can go on for years and year
what is a con to syndromic surveillance?
The non specificity of data: many different dz may show the same clinical sign that the data is based upon
What are some pros to passive surveillance?
Reportable dz programs provide continuous surveillance
Laboratory surveillance can detect emerging dz
What is active surveillance?
Involves committed effort of the veterinary/health authority to identify subjects for data or samples
They initiate sample/data collection bu identifying the surveillance subjects etc etc
What is a pro to active surveillance?
Can be representative of the population - can make valid estimates of the amount of dz in a pop
What are some cons to active surveillance?
Very expensive and labor intensive
Usually done once or intermittently
Sometimes may not be representative of the population
What is sentinel surveillance?
A small group is monitored as an indicator of the greater population health or dz risk
What populations act as sentinels for the risk to human populations from WNV?
Horses, wild birds, and mosquitoes
What are some pros of sentinel surveillance?
Less expensive than monitoring an entire population
Often the only method available
Allows intensive, multiple testing.. early warning