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RUSVM Epi Summer 17 > Surveillance > Flashcards

Flashcards in Surveillance Deck (32)
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1

What is surveillance? (in reference to epi)

Systematic continuous observation of populations and collection and analysis of date from many varied sources

2

What are the two main reasons we use surveillance?

1. Rapid detection and timely, appropriate response to important health events

2. Production and communication of valid information about the health and disease status of the population

3

What are the major goals of animal health surveillance?

Maintain and improve:
Animal health and welfare
Economic viability of animal based food production systems

Protection of public health: control of zoonotic and foodborne diseases

4

Why is early detection important in the event of disease outbreaks?

Early detection prevents catastrophic losses and costs

Direct costs: dead animals, tx for sick animals, lost productivity

Indirect costs: lost markets and consumer confidence, losses in tourism etc

5

How does surveillance support dz control during an outbreak?

By using situational intelligence - information is collected and given to epidemiologist to analyze to project the outbreak movements/trends to get a better handle on it
*also identify suspect or infected farms for stamping out

6

What is an example of a control eradication program?

Test and slaughter programs

7

Are good surveillance programs beneficial or detrimental to trade?

Beneficial

OIE member nations have specific surveillance regulations that are essential for trade (food animals and their products)

8

T/F: Borders can be closed if a nation has substandard surveillance, even if no disease is detected

TRUE

9

Surveillance detects failure of _____ and ______ security programs.

Biosecurity and border security

10

What are the 3 basic components of surveillance?

1. Detection
2. Response
3. Communication

11

Are disease the outbreak investigation and diagnostic pathology part of the Detection phase of surveillance?

YES

Observation of a population or collection, analysis and interpretation of data from a population

12

What is animal health surveillance?

Surveillance of animals for diseases of importance to animals and people

13

Surveillance of people for human diseases is considered ________

Public health surveillance

14

What is biosurveillance?

Surveillance of humans, animals, and plants for dz affecting any or all of them

15

What are the 4 types of surveillance?

****
Passive
Active
Sentinel
Targeted

16

What is the most common form of surveillance?

PASSIVE

17

What is passive surveillance?

Submission is initiated by and at the discretion of the sample/data provider;
**The Veterinarian or health authority does very little to select subjects for sampling or information

18

What are some examples of passive surveillance?

Reportable dz programs
Sero-surveys at auction markets and slaughter plants
Diagnostic laboratory submission surveillance

19

What is syndromic surveillance?

Collecting and analyzing data based on clinical signs only. (from medical records)

Researcher chooses what clinical sign they want to collect data for

20

What are some cons to passive surveillance?

Not a representative sample of the population

Will not work for less valued animals that do not use veterinary services

Does not account for animals that have not been reported

Little control over who provides the data and samples

21

Is syndromic surveillance usually short term or long term?

Long. these studies can go on for years and year

22

what is a con to syndromic surveillance?

The non specificity of data: many different dz may show the same clinical sign that the data is based upon

23

What are some pros to passive surveillance?

Cheap
Reportable dz programs provide continuous surveillance
Laboratory surveillance can detect emerging dz

24

What is active surveillance?

Involves committed effort of the veterinary/health authority to identify subjects for data or samples

They initiate sample/data collection bu identifying the surveillance subjects etc etc

25

What is a pro to active surveillance?

Can be representative of the population - can make valid estimates of the amount of dz in a pop

26

What are some cons to active surveillance?

Very expensive and labor intensive
Usually done once or intermittently
Sometimes may not be representative of the population

27

What is sentinel surveillance?

A small group is monitored as an indicator of the greater population health or dz risk

28

What populations act as sentinels for the risk to human populations from WNV?

Horses, wild birds, and mosquitoes

29

What are some pros of sentinel surveillance?

Less expensive than monitoring an entire population
Often the only method available
Allows intensive, multiple testing.. early warning

30

What is the purpose of targeted surveillance?

It is used to prove freedom from disease in specific populations

*targets a specific segment of the population to enhance detection of dz