Flashcards in Surgical And Theatre Deck (84)
Temporary cut through tissue eg. Spey
Creating a permanent opening in tissue eg. Tracheostomy
Removing a structure eg. Spleenectomy
Exploratory laparotomy means?
To open up the abdomen
Minimum age of person giving informed consent
18 years old
Routine food- withholding period for adult dogs and cats
Routine food-withholding period for puppies and kittens under 2wks (neonates)
From what time is water withheld from dogs and cats for routine surgery
Water is removed at time of pre-med
Factors influencing scheduling of surgeries
Clean vs. dirty
Purpose: ... and ... of induction agent dose
Other effects: .... which .... BP, ... thermia, ... of 3rd eyelid
Precautions: not used in ... BP conditions (shock/ dehydration), do NOT use in .... breeds, not used in cases of .... or ...
Purpose: sedation and reduction of induction agent dose
Other effects: vasodilation which reduces BP, hypothermia, protrusion of 3rd eyelid
Precautions: not used in low BP conditions (shock/ dehydration), do NOT use in boxer breeds, not used in cases of epilepsy or caesareans
Purpose: prevent or manage ..., reduce ... and ... secretions
Other effects: ... pupils, ... eyes, reduces ....
Precautions: contraindicated if pre-exisiting ... disorders
Purpose: prevent or manage bradycardia, reduce oral and respiratory secretions
Other effects: dilates pupils, dried eyes, reduces gut motility
Precautions: contraindicated if pre-exisiting cardiac disorders
Drug group: ....
Purpose: ... and ...
Other effects: .... and ....
Precautions: contraindicated in cases of .... (intracranial pressure)
Drug group: opioids
Purpose: analgesia and sedation
Other effects: bradycardia and bradypnoea
Precautions: contraindicated in cases of head trauma (intracranial pressure)
Advantages of IV induction over face mask or chamber induction:
Reducing patient stress
Less anaesthetic agent used (ISO)
What class of anaesthetic agents?
It is a rapid induction agent?
Not irritant or highly irritant if injected perivascularly
Belongs to barbiturate class
Rapid induction agent
Highly irritant if injected perivascularly
Is thiopental suitable for maintaining anaesthesia for long periods by topping up?
No, not suitable to be topped up to maintain prolonged anaesthesia
What does a pressure regulator do?
Indicates quantity of oxygen left in tank and maintains constant pressure within cylinder
Vaporisers should be ON/ OFF while refilling anaesthetic?
Rebreathing circuits are also known as?
Non- rebreathing circuits are also known as ?
Parallel tubing is also known as?
Tube in tube is also known as ?
Disadvantages of non-rebreathing systems?
More O2 and ISO used
Lowers body temp due to cold and dry air
2 ways to determine if soda lime needs replacing?
No heat is generated when in use (soda lime should generate heat when efficiently removing expired CO2 from the circuit)
Principles of minimising human exposure to waste anaesthetic gases:
1. Use an effective ... system
2. Perform ... test
3. Avoid ... induction and use masks with a good ...
4. If chamber induction is used remove box in a ... area
5. At end of procedure allow patient to breathe only ...
6. Speeding recovery= ... patient, block end of tube with ... open pop off valve and squeeze bag, anaesthetic from circuit is removed by ... system, purge using ... and repeat then close pop off as required and reconnect patient so they breathe only O2.
2. Pressure leakage
3. Mask induction, seal
4. Well ventilated
6. Disconnect patient, block with thumb, removed by scavenger, purge using by pass valve
Reasons why ET tube is placed for maintenance of gaseous anaesthesia instead of face mask?
Less leakage of anaesthetic gases
Control of airways (IPPV)
Less dead space
Eliminates chance of aspirating on vomit if placed correctly
ET tube is placed ?
From mouth entrance to the point of shoulder
Animal species/ group which Un-cuffed ET tubes are used ?
Spontaneous ventilation where endobronchial intubation occurs
1. Can result in over inflation of inhabited lung?
2. Occurs when tip of tube lies within one bronchus?
3. Can result in severe hypoxaemia?
4. Can result in the collapse of the lung that is not intubated?
Endobronchial intubation causes hypoxaemia which doesn't respond to increasing ventilation or oxygen because there is a mismatch of ... and ... whereby the blood flowing from non intubated lung is deoxygenated which mixes with the blood from oxygenated lung.
Ventilation and perfusion