What are examples of pancreatic disorders?
Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) and pancreatic cystic disease
What does IPMN stand for?
Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm
What is the incidence of pancreatic cancer in the UK?
What age group is pancreatic cancer most common in?
60-80 years old
What is the male:female ratio of pancreatic cancer?
What is the 5 year survival rate of pancreatic cancer?
What are risk factors for pancreatic cancer?
Adult onset of diabetes
What is the presentation of pancreatic cancer?
Abdominal pain/back pain
Recurrent bouts pancreatitis
What investigations are done for pancreatic cancer?
Tumour markers (CA19-9)
What antigen is released by cancerous pancreatic cells that can be tested for?
What imaging/invasive tests can be done to investigate pancreatic cancer?
Percutaneous needle biopsy
What is considered when considering if a patient with pancreatic cancer is fit for pancreatic resection?
Basic history and examination
Chest x-ray and ECG
Respiratory function tests
Physiological scoring system
What types of surgery can be done for pancreatic cancer?
Pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD)
What does PPPD stand for?
What is a pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy
Similar to Whipples operation but none of the stomach is removed
What is Kausch-Whipple surgery?
Removes head of pancreas, bile duct, gallbladder and the duodenum
What is Kausch-Whipple surgery also known as?
What is acute pancreatitis?
An acute inflammatory process of the pancreas with involvement of other regional tissues or remote organ systems
What are the different classifications of acute pancreatitis?
What is mild acute pancreatitis associated with?
Minimal organ dysfunction and uneventful recovery
What is severe acute pancreatitis associated with?
Organ failure or local complication
What are some local complications of acute pancreatitis?
Acute fluid collection
What is the aetiology of acute pancreatitis?
Viral infections (CMV, mumps)
What viral infections can cause acute pancreatitis?
What does CMV stand for?
What is the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis caused by alcohol?
Increased sensitivity to stimulation
Oxidation products (acetaldehyde)
Non-oxidative metabolism (fatty acid ethyl esters)
What is the pathophysiology of pancreatitis caused by gallstones?
Passage of gallstone is essential
Raised pancreatic ductal pressure
What is the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis caused by ERCP?
Increased pancreatic duct pressure
What are some symptoms of acute pancreatitis?
What are some signs of acute pancreatitis?