Superpowers and Global Hubs of Migration and Power Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Superpowers and Global Hubs of Migration and Power Deck (19)
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Two types of superpower

global superpower = ability of USA, UK, USSR to project power and influence anywhere to become a worldwide force
regional superpower = significant influence over its neighbours, e.g. Nigeria,


Global Superpowers

- between 1500-1900 leading powers built global empires, result of which, European language, religion and law differences on global scale
- USA dominated world affairs since 1945 using 'neo-colonialism' strategies. include, provision of international air and cultural influence.
- geopolitical use of military force and economic influence achieved through forceful trade policies


Types of power that superpower countries have

- smart power = skilful combined use of hard and soft power
- soft power = power of persuasion by making appealing policies
- hard power = getting own way using force and economic power


Regional superpowers

- middle eastern Qatar has highest GDP pc in the world, mainly due to fossil fuel sales (14% of reserves)
- Doha became powerful, sporting events and international conferences are held
- Al Jazeera media network rivals BBC and important source of soft power


China as a superpower

- worlds largest economy in 2014, exerts great pressure globally due to its size
- ave income greater than 1/3 of US citizens
- lacks soft power due to cultural isolation, e.g. language


USA as a superpower

-G8 countries together = influence of USA
- population owns +40% of global wealth
- influence over international organisations including NATO, UN, IMF and world-bank, influence over global politics


Benefits of international migration for superpower states

Skilled labour shortages - economically and socially damaging for a country
unskilled labour shortages - too few willing to do poorly paid but essential work, impeding economic progress
- post colonial migration to UK after WWII due to labour shortages
- Less than 2% of population in Japan is foreign, suffers with ageing population, in order to maintain economic role, relaxation of immigration necessary
- USA, since 1990s, skilled Indian migrants more highly paid than any other grant community


Global hubs

- superpower demand for migrant labour often concentrated in particular hubs within these states
- large numbers of foreign workers within London's Canary Wharf financial district
- Global hubs = megacities
e.g. Oxford attracts many overseas students and lecturers after being named world's leading educational institution
- international migration plays a vital role in replenishing human resources of powerful cities and states
- natural resources include, coasts for trade, oil resource
- human resources include, large labour force, skilled labour and affluence to attract service providers


Migration flows and economic inequalities as a result of hubs

- low waged international migrants are drawn to global hubs in large numbers to work in low pay kitchens, construction sites or domestic jobs
- lead to significant cultural change in host country, e.g. British Indian Sikh community is largest outside of India
- migration movements and associated flows of money and ideas may reduce global inequalities promoting growth and stability, exacerbate global inequalities and potentially lead to tension or conflict


Effects of migration on host regions

- fill skill shortages
- economic migrants willingly work in jobs locals may not want to and spend wages on rent and pay tax on earnings
- social tensions if locals believe migrants have led to lack of jobs/affordable housing
- primary school places shortage
- migrants favoured by employers due to work ethic and reliability


Effects of migration on source regions

- remittances are peer-to-peer flow to help social rather than economic developments
- may return to source country over time, bringing new skills home
- economic loss of Human Resources, including key workers
- ageing population
- reduced economic growth s consumption falls
- no guarantee that remittances will continue to be sent home


Economic and social interdependency

- remittances sent home to source country may generate up to 40% GDP for poorer states
- used to pay for education and health
- migrants often essential to some host country populations, providing many vital economic and social services


Political and environmental interdependency

- closer political partnership develops between states that have become socio-economically independent
- increases cooperation to tackle shared environmental threats such as climate change
- EU governments provide with greater tax revenues for services and infrastructure, back wash effect balanced by trickle down of wealth in every country
- backwash migration losses for peripheral E.Europe are greater than trickle down gains
- Indian to UAE - 30% of population, US $15bn returned in remittance annually, most work in construction, transport and manufacturing


Benefits of interdependency

- strengthen friendship between states, reducing potential for geopolitical conflict
- EU state governments believed greater interdependency would end conflict after WWII
- states home to large diaspora population have strong geopolitical ties with diaspora's country of origin


Risks of interdependency

- recession in 2009 during GFC. Building projects cancelled, immigrants lost jobs and remittances not sent home
- interdependency may be a threat to nation's sovereignty, too much in-migration has been allowed, and freedom of movement must be controlled


Migration policies of host and source countries

- UK governments adopted 'open-door' approach in 1950s and 2000s due to skills and labour shortages
- few countries have laws preventing out-movement
- N.Korea exception, government require exit visas before leaving
- Saudi Arabia and Qatar, migrants apply for exit visa before being allowed to return home


Rise of anti-immigration movements

- anti-globalisation and political movements are increasingly popular due to cultural concerns
- migration causes political tensions
- migration was the most important issue influencing the vote of EU Brexit
- nationalist political parties now command significant support (UKIP)
- Charlie Held workers killed by Algerian gunmen, Islamic faith 'mocked' demonstrating religious tensions


Migration issues that divide popular opinion in USA

- economic = some view migrants are a vital part of economy growth, working long hours for low pay
- national security = terrorism heightened security
- demographics = youthful migration helps offset costs of ageing population
- cultural change = influencing food, music and language, Hispanic population growth encouraged Spanish-language soaps on Netflix


Conflicting views about Migration at varying geographical scales

- Brexit support high among pensioners, rural communities, younger voters, Scots and London favoured remaining
- poorer and older deindustrialise area populations voted Trump, California and hispanics supported Clinton
- British born city livers with large migrant populations such as London and Cardiff have more positive feelings towards migration