superior and middle mediastinum prep Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in superior and middle mediastinum prep Deck (37)
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1

where is the superior mediastinum

lie above a plane joining sternal angle to lower border of thoracic vertebrae

2

where is the inferior mediastinum

extends from the plane of sternal angle = T4 to diaphragm
it is subdivided

3

3 parts of the inferior mediastinum

anterior - lies between sternum and pericardium
middle - composes of pericardial sac and contents
posterior - behing the pericardium, extend inferiorly between diaphragm and posterior chest wall

4

what is the fibrous pericardium

collagenous layer fused with central tendon of diaphragm and adventitia of great vessels

5

adventitia

outermost connective tissue covering the vessel

6

serous pericardium

parietal layer - lines the fibrous pericardium and visceral layer - lines outer surface of the heart
provide heart with friction free surface to accommodate its sliding movements

7

pericardial cavity

space between parietal and visceral layers containing serous fluid

8

where does the ascending aorta leave

the LV

9

where does the pul trunk leave

RV

10

describe the path of the aorta

continues as the arch of aorta
curves posteriorly and to L over R pul artery

11

when does the aorta become the descending thoracic aorta

reaches the L side of T4

12

where is the brachiocephalic vein

lies behind the manubrium
anterior to aortic arch

13

what forms the superior vena cava

R and L brachiocephalic veins

14

veins in the neck area

brachiocephalic vein meets subclavian vein which drains arms, and jugular veins that drains head

15

where does azygos vein go

arches forward over root of R lung to enter superior vena cava
drains posterior and lateral parts of thoracic cage

16

what protects the great vessels other than the inf vena cava

manubrium

17

branch of the aortic arch

brachiocephalic artery - crosses over the right side of the trachea
divides into R subclavian artery - pass laterally over 1st rib - enters axilla and R common carotid artery that ascends into the neck to R of trachea
next branch = L common carotid artery - into neck L of trachea
L subclavian artery - into axilla
thyroidea ima artery - may run from arch to thyroid but inconsistent

18

branches in the aorta

brachiocephalic artery - trunk
left common carotid
left subclavian artery

19

what is anterior to the superior vena cava

1st costal cartilage

20

level of bifurcation of the trachea

T4/5

21

what lies in the subcarinal angle

lymph nodes

22

what does the anterior mediastinum contain

strands of thymus and adipose tissue

23

what are the 2 pockets of the pericardial cavity called

pericardial sinuses

24

describe the oblique sinus

blindly ending pocket of pericardial sac
posterior to LA and surrounded by 4 pul veins

25

describe the transverse sinus

between great arteries and SVC
pericardium lined tunnel

26

what happens when you bleed into the pericardial sac

cardiac tamponade
compress the heart
keep it from pumping as well as it should

27

phrenic nerve

supplies sensory nerves to fibrous pericardium, diaphragmatic pleura and peritoneum
terminate in diaphragm

28

path of vagus nerve

from carotid sheath
to neck in thorax
then posterior to lung roots to oesophagus
then form network (the oesophageal plexus)

29

what does the recurrent laryngeal nerve do

supplies skeletal muscle and sensation in the larynx

30

where does the laryngeal nerve go

leaves the L vagus at aortic arch
hook under acrh - run up to larynx in groove between trachea and oesophagus