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Flashcards in Subluxation Models - Short Version Deck (27)
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1

What are Subluxation Theories

are different explanations for how subluxation complexes affect the body, and how adjustments work to correct the problem

2

What are the 4 Subgroups Subluxation Theories can be Divided into?

Biomechanica, Neurologica, Trophic and Psychosocial

3

The term that often is used to refer to the problem or condition that the chiropractor tries to
correct is ________

Subluxation

4

________ may be viewed as a state or condition in which body functions are adversely affected by a continuing, or ongoing structural problem

subluxation complex

5

The body system that is affected most
seems to be the ________. The body structure that is most important seems to be the _________

nervous system
spinal column

6

What are the three biomechanical Theories of Subluxation?

1. Vertebral/spinal misalignment (subluxation)
2. Abnormal vertebral movement
(hypermobility, fixation)
3. Subluxation Degeneration-
(chronic uncorrected VSC and body's response)

7

What are the neurological theories of Subluxation

Nerve Compression
Spinal Cord Compression (myelopathy)
Facilitation
Mechnoreceptor Deafferentation
Neuroimmune Hypothesis

8

Which of the Neurological Theories of Subluxation does the following statement match with?
"the idea that altered nerve activity due to the subluxation can affect the immune system, causing lowered resistance and increased susceptibility to infections of various kinds?"

Neuroimmune Hypothesis

9

Which of the Neurological Theories of Subluxation does the following statement match with?
"when there is spinal fixation or loss of movement, important nerve signals don’t reach the central nervous system- this can cause balance and equilibrium problems, and it can affect parts of the brain that influence immunity and personality"

Mechanoreceptor Deafferentation

10

Which of the Neurological Theories of Subluxation does the following statement match with?
"the subluxation complex is a problem of hyperexcitability that disrupts normal reflexes in the spinal cord"

Facilitation Theory

11

Which of the Neurological Theories of Subluxation does the following statement match with?
"the idea that compression of the spinal cord results from vertebral misalignment, especially in the upper neck region"

Spinal Cord Compression (myelopathy)

12

Which of the Neurological Theories of Subluxation does the following statement match with?
""impingement" occurs when a nerve's surroundings become confined, or narrowed due to vertebral misalignment or other mechanical factors (like a bulging disc)"

Nerve Compression Theory

13

What is the difference between nerve block and nerve irritation?

1. nerve block- nerve signals are stopped
2. nerve irritation- nerves are irritated, and send more signals than they should

14

explain the somatomotor/somatosomatic theory within Facilitation

this is the idea that spinal joint abnormalities can cause problems with balance, and can cause chronic muscle
spasm which creates fixation in specific spinal segments

15

explain the somatovisceral /somatoautonomic reflex theory within Facilitation

- the idea that the irritation or inflammation due to subluxation leads to too much stimulation in nerves which affect body organs, including blood vessels. (sympathetic nerves)

16

explain the viscerosomatic/visceromotor reflex theory within Facilitation

the idea that irritation or injury of body organs such as the lungs, stomach, and intestines due to chemicals, etc.., can cause pain in the spine, and possibly can lead to subluxation complexes in the spine

17

What are the 5 Trophic theories of Subluxation?

1. Axoplasmic Flow
2. Vertebrobasilar Arterial Insufficiency
3. Intraneural Microcirculation Ischemia
4. Venous and Lymphatic Vessel Stasis
5. Altered Cerebrospinal Fluid Flow

18

Which Trophic Theory of Subluxation does the following statement match with?
"it is felt that small amounts of pressure on nerves can inhibit the flow of substances in nerve axons without blocking nerve impulses; these substances can be important for health of the nerve cells themselves, and canalso impact the target tissues and organs of the nerves"

Axoplasmic Flow

19

Which Trophic Theory of Subluxation does the following statement match with?
"some feel that upper cervical misalignments can put pressure on the vertebral arteries, and block some of the blood flow to the brain"

Vertebrobasilar Arterial Insufficiency

20

Which Trophic Theory of Subluxation does the following statement match with?
" it is felt that small amounts of compression in
the area of nerves can squeeze the small arteries supplying nerves, and this will
starve the blood supply of the nerves"

Intraneural microcirculation ischemia

21

Which Trophic Theory of Subluxation does the following statement match with?
"the idea that veins and lymph vessels can be very easily compressed by narrowing of the intervertebral spaces; the resulting reduction in circulation can cause swelling which further damages nerves; failure to remove toxins leads to inflammation of the nerves"

Venous and lymphatic vessel stasis-

22

Which Trophic Theory of Subluxation does the following statement match with?
"improper circulation of CSF within the CNS due to
spinal dysfunction can cause neurologic problems"

Altered cerebrospinal fluid flow

23

What are the two Psychosocial Theories of Subluxation?

Somatopsychic Hypothesis
Psychogenic Hypothesis

24

What is the Somatopsychic Hypothesis?

the idea that altered nerve activity due to the VSC can
affect mental state, including emotions, and possibly other functions such as sleep

25

What is the Psychogenic Hypothesis

emotions can cause VSC, due to:
1. effects on posture/"body language"/nonverbal communication
2. chronic anxiety or stress and its effects on nerve activity
3. diaphragm tightness due to stress
4. chronic stress can cause damage to organs like the stomach, which can then give rise to nerve signals that affect the spine (viscerosomatic reflexes)

26

How does Chronic Anxiety or Stress contribute to VSC?

(sympathetic nervoussystem); a persistent “fight or flight” state causes the deep layer spinal muscles to contract, leading to spinal stiffness and joint fixation

27

How does Diaphragm tightness contribute to VSC?

felt to cause fixation/misalignment of the upper lumbar area of the spine, because the diaphragm anchors to the spine in that area