Subluxation Definitions and Component Models Flashcards Preview

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What did Ruth Jackson, M.D say about the term Subluxation?

That is is a term that defies casual explanation and precise definition and its use therefore is highly controversial and hotly debated and will mostly likely remain that way


What is the Philosophical/Conceptual way of defining subluxation

Philosophically subluxation is a concept we believe encompasses an entire class of phenomena - It is a metaphor concerning what we see as a possible source of interference to normal internal/external communication


Is the following a Philosophical/Conceptual approach or a operational/scientific approach to explaining subluxation?
"describes the nature of the subluxation process listing the structures involved and generalizing its effects as evidence of its existence"

Philosophical/Conceptual Approach


What is the Scientific/Operational way of defining subluxation?

a phenomenon worth studying only in proportion to its significance in human life and purposes


T or F
Most research has been clinical which leads to operational definitions of vertebral subluxation

"a subluxation is what exists in the body when we find signs/indicators/symptoms (leg checks, palpable findings, instrumentation readings) from the outside"


In creating a definition for subluxation what should be ultimately try to do?

seek to create a comprehensive neuro-endocrine-immune-spinal biomechanical theory of the body's innate intelligence and its relationship to coordination, adaptation and health


What are some things we need to be aware of when defining subluxation

- Our Audience
- when to use an operational vs. conceptual definition


The best CONCEPTUAL definitions are those that are ...?

general enough not to conflict with any specific OPERATIONAL definition


T or F
VIrtually all definitions of subluxation that have been used are Operational (Scientific) with varying levels

Almost all are Conceptual (Philosophical)


Who uses the following definition of subluxation?
"A subluxation is the condition of a vertebra that has lost its proper juxtaposition with the one above or the one below or both; to the extent less than a luxation; and which impinges nerves and interfered with the transmission of mental impulses:



What does "MOPI: stand for?

M: Misalignment/Malposition
O: Occlusion/Narrowing
P: Pressure/ Impingement
I: Interference


Who uses the following definition of Subluxation
"Subluxation in the chiropractic sense is not a partial dislocation, but an alteration of the normal anatomical or physiological relationships, or dynamics of contiguous structures"



Where did the following definition of Subluxation come from?
"A subluxation is a misalignment, malposition or dyskinesia of any skeletal articulation within its active or passive range of motion"

PCC Draft 2003


where did this definition of Vertebral Subluxation come from?
" A vertebral Subluxation is a subluxation of any weight breaking spinal articulation that compromises neural integrity and may influence organ system function and general health"

PCC draft 2003


Who used the following definition of Subluxation?
"A motion segment in which alignment, movement integrity, and or physiological functions are altered although contact between joint surfaces remains intact"

Gatterman (1995)


What is the most generally accepted definition of subluxation?

a subluxation is a complex of functional and or structural and or pathological articular changes that compromise neural integrity and may influence organ system function and general health
- ACC Position Paper ,1996


Do chiropractors view subluxation as a lesion or a process

A process


Does defining subluxation as a lesion or a process involve the idea of time?

A process


Subluxation as a **(Process/Lesion)** is considered to involve multiple local tissues and multiple body systems which constitute "components" of it



What are the 5 components of the VSC Model

1) Kinesopathology
2) Myopathology
3) Histopathology
4) Neuropathophysiology
5) Biochemical/Pathophysiology


What 2 things make up the 2-component model proposed by Amalu and Tiscareno

1) Segmental Aberrant Spinal Arthrokinematics
2) Neuropathophysiology


What 3 things make up the 3-component model as proposed by Kent

1) Dyskinesia
2) Dysponesis
3) Dysautonomia


What 3 things make up the 3-component model as proposed by Kent

1) Dyskinesia
2) Dysponesis
3) Dysautonomia


What is Dysponesis

A reversible physiopathologic state
consisting of unnoticed, misdirected
neurophysiologic reactions to various agents and the
repercussions of these reactions throughout
the organism (consist mainly of covert
errors in action-potential output from the
motor and pre-motor areas of the cortex and
the consequences of that output)


Explain the "Safety Pin Cycle"

“unnoticed” errors in input (afferent transmission)
result in “covert” errors in output (efferent transmission), which has repercussions throughout the organism (“dis-ease”and “functional disorders”)


define Subluxation Complex

a theoretic model of motion segment dysfunction (subluxation) that incorporates the complex interaction of pathologic changes in nerve, muscle, ligamentous,
vascular, and connective tissues.


Define Subluxation Syndrome

An aggregate of signs and symptoms that relate to pathophysiology or dysfunction of spinal and pelvic
motion segments or to peripheral joints.