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one way ANOVA - F ratio-

the sum of squares are converted to mean squares by diving each sum of squares by the appropriate degrees of freedom, the degrees of freedom are used not only to identify the crucial value


Factorial ANOVA

is an extension of the one way ANOVA and is used when a study includes two or more independent variables.


Randomized block ANOVA

type of factorial /ANOVA that is employed when blocking has been used to control an extraneous variable, it involves treating the extraneous variable as an independent variable so that its main and interaction effects can be spastically analyzed , increases stastical power by reducing within group variability


Analysis of Covariance ANCOVA

combines the analysis of variance with regression analysis and allows an investigator to control an extraneous variable by stastically removing the portion of variability in the dependent variable that is due to the extraneous variable , removing the effects of an extraneous variable the ANCOVA reduces wihin group variability


Mixed( split plot) ANOVA

appropriate test for studies using a mixed design in which at least one IV is a between groups variable and one IV is a within subjects variable


Trend Analysis

used when the study involves one or more quanitative independent variables, and the researcher wants to evaluate the shape or form of the relationship between the independent and dependent variable , results indicate whether or not there is a statically significant linear or nonlinear relationship between the variables


Multivariate Analysis of Variance MANOVA

used when a study includes one or more independent variables and two or more dependent variables that are each measured on an interval or ratio scale, it allows an investigation to simulanteounsly assesses the effects of the independent variable on all of the dependent variables and helps control the experimentwise error


Cohen's d

is a measure of the difference between two groups in terms of standard deviation units, calculated by subtracting the mean of one group from the mean of the other group and dividing the result by a pooled standard deviation for the two groups


Eta squared

indicates the percent of variance in the outcome variables that is accounted for by variance in the treatment


Pearson R

interval or ratio correlation coefficent


Spearman Rho

rank ordered correlation coefficent


Point Biseral

True dichotomoy ( male/female) and interval or ratio



interval or ratio, used when the relationship between variables is nonlinear


Degree of Association

a correlation coefficent can be interpreted directly in terms of degrees of association , the closer the coefficent is to either to -1.0 to 1.0 the stronger the association between variables, the closer it is to 0, the weaker the association


Shared Variability

when a correlation coefficent represents the degree of association between two different variables, it can be squared to obtain a coefficent of determenation , indicates the proportion of variability in Y that is explained by or accounted for by variability in X.


Regression Analysis

goal is to use a predictor to predict or estimate performance on a criterion, the technique that allows such predictions to be made when there is one predictor X and one criterion Y


Mutiple Regression

appropriate multivariate technique when two or more continuous or discrete predictors will be used to predict status on a single continuous criterion, use of multiple regression is based on the assumption that the relationship between variables is linear



a high correlation with two or more predictors *not desirable


Cross Validation/Shrinkage

size of the correlation coefficent tends to shrink and the predictive accuracy of the regression equation decreases
Shrinkage- occurs because the regression weights which are used in the calculation of R as ell as in the regression equation, greatest when sample is mall, and number of predictors is large


Discriminant Function Analysis

discriminant analysis and is the appropriate technique when two or more continuous predictors will be used to predict or estimate a persons status or a single discrete criterion


Path Analysis

can be considered an extension of mutiple regression, translating the theory about the casual relationships among a set of variables into a path diagram



linear structural relations anaylsis- can be used when a casual model includes recursive and non recurive paths, takes into account the latent traits


Cluster Analysis

used to group people or objects into a smaller number of mutually exclusive or exhaustive subgroups based on their similarities,