Spermatogenesis and Testes Endocrine Function Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Spermatogenesis and Testes Endocrine Function Deck (40)
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1

What is the counter current exchange in the testes?

Heat transfer in the counter current flow causes hot blood to be shunted away from the testes keeping them cool for sperm production

2

How does testosterone work in the counter current exchange?

Testosterone is shunted in a manner that keeps it within the testes to keep T levels high

3

What is spermatogenesis?

Proces of sperm production and includes spermiogenesis and spermeation.

4

What is spermiogenesis?

Cellular remodeling of spermatids into spermatozoa

5

What is spermeation?

Extrusion of flagellated spermatozoa into the lumen of the tubule

6

Where are the most mature sperm found in the semniferous tubule?

Towards the center

7

What happens to the majority of cells undergoing spermatogenesis?

Undergo continuous mitotic division with the minority undergoing meiosis

8

What is the acrosome?

A cap of membranes containing digestive enzymes

9

What are the functions of the epididymus?

•Sperm maturation: gain motility, lose cytoplasm
•Reservoir for sperm
•Stabilize acrosome

10

What is the function of the prostate?

•Secretions are alkaline – neutralize vaginal secretions
•Prostatic specific antigen (diagnostic value)

11

What is the function of the seminal vesicle?

•Secretions of prostaglandins – contractions of uterus and fallopian tubes considered important in sperm movement

12

What is the function of inhibin?

It will inhibit pituitary release of FSH/LH

13

What is the function of activin?

It will activate pituitary release of FSH.LH

14

What are Leydig cells activated by?

They are stimulated by LH

15

What is the function of the Leydig cells?

They secrete T via a GPCR -> PKA pathway that will increase T synthesis and increase sterol carrier protein

16

What are Sertoli cells activated by?

FSH

17

What is the function of Sertoli cells?

Facilitate sperm development via a GPCR path to increase androgen binding protein and increase aromatase synthesis as well as androgen receptor and inhibit synthesis

18

What is the function of androgen binding protein (ABP)?

It will keep T levels high as it absorbs T and it will release it as T levels drop and keep the levels consistently high

19

What are the paracrine functions of inhibin?

Stimulates T secretion

20

What are the paracrine functions of activin?

Inhibits T secretion

21

What NS control is erection under?

Parasympathetic via ACh and NO activation of guanylyl cyclase which makes cGMP and leads to vasodilation

22

What NS control is ejaculation under?

Sympathetic control via a spinal reflex

23

What is emission?

It is the movement of ejaculate into the prostatic/proximal part of urethra

24

What endocrine disorder type is hypergonadotropic hypogonadism?

Primary

25

What endocrine disorder type is hypogonadotropic hypogonadism?

Secondary/Tertiary

26

What are the effects of hypergonadotropic hypogonadism?

Increased LH, FSH with decreased testosterone, DHT

27

What are the effects of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism?

Decreased LH, FSH and decreased testosterone, DHT

28

What are the examples of diseases that cause hypergonadotropic hypogonadism?

Klinfelter's
17alpha-hydroxylase deficiency
5alpha-reductase deficiency

29

What are the examples of diseases that cause hypogonadotropic hypogonadism?

Kallman's
Hyperprolactinemia
Hypothalamic Syndromes

30

What phase are the oocytes arrested in until ovulation?

Prophase of meiosis

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