special reading - 1 - The adaptiveness of defence behaviour Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in special reading - 1 - The adaptiveness of defence behaviour Deck (10)
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1

what were the hypotheses tested?

- a combination of eyes spots and sound (hissing) are more effective than either trait alone in the peacock butterflies predator defence

2

who wrote the paper?

Vallin et al (2005)

3

describe the treatment methods?

- 6 different treatments (3 treatment, 3 controls)
- treatment 1 - eye spots removed using marker pen ( control = marking parts of wing without eyespots)
- treatment 2 -hissing was removed by cutting lower edge of forewing (control = cut away lower edge of hindwing)
- treatment 3 - removed both (control = both)

4

How were the butterflies presented to the birds?

- presented in a small room with natural light to blue tits
- one on one
- studied 54 presentations
- bird discovered butterfly in all

5

what was the name of the butterfly and bird used in the experiment?

- peacock butterfly
- blue tit

6

what were the results of the study?

- eyespots significantly reduced predation risk - 9/9 survived vs 5/10 without eyespots
- hissing had no significant effect against blue tits
- 1/34 with eyespots were killed compared to 13/20 of those without

7

what do the results mean in reference to the hypothesis?

- for blue tits hissing isn't useful however it may be a useful predator defence strategy against other predators

8

describe the results of this test in context of other studies

- butterflies are exploiting the blue tits fear of large predators using eyespots
- dishonest signalling
- hissing whilst not effective has no costs

9

when undisturbed the butterflies adopt a cryptic position imitating a fallen leaf, however after being discovered and reacting(flicking wings open) they adopt one of 3 behaviours what are these?

1) keep eye spots visible
2) continue to flick wings in direction of bird
3) return to cryptic position

10

examples of anti predation techniques

- parents remove egg shells from nest
- dilution effect
- cryptic colouration e.g. dark moth (tested by operant conditioning in blue jays) e.g. decorator crab
- stotting (honest signalling)
- selfish herds

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