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43,560 SF

- Standard unit of lot size
- One parcel contains 40 acres
- One section (1 sq mile) contains 640 acres


4 Climatic Regions (USA and Canada)

1. Cool
2. Temperate
3. Hot/Humid
4. Hot/Arid


Ground Coupling

Hot air is pulled into underground tubes where it's naturally cooled by the Earth and then radiated into the building


Concave Slope

Contour lines are more closely spaced near the top of the slope


Solar Orientation - 3 Influences

1. Building orientation to control solar heat gain or heat loss
2. Location of outdoor spaces and activities
3. Location of building entries


Parking Sizes

Standard: 9'x19' Compact: 7'6"x15', but often 8'x15'


Convex Slope

Contour lines are more closely spaced near the bottom of the slope



Portion of radiant energy that is reflected as it falls on a surface


Hot/Arid Climates - Design Strategies

1. Use compact forms with minimal surface area
2. Minimize opening sizes
3. Provide shade for openings
4. Maximize thermal mass
5. Use light colors for the building exterior


Solar Orientation's Influence on Outdoor Spaces by Climate Type

Hot/Humid: Locate outdoor spaces in the shade
Temperate: Locate outdoor spaces in the sun
Cold: Locate outdoor spaces and building entries in the sun


Natural Ventilation Strategies

1. Take advantage of prevailing winds
2. Building form should be narrow or spread out for breezes to filter through
3. Use courtyards


Circulation Types

1. Automobile
2. Pedestrian
3. Service


Exterior Stair Guidelines

1. Max rise 6", min rise 4"
2. Tread 14" deep for 6" rise
3. Slope 1/4" per ft downward
4. Handrail required on at least one side for stairs of 4 risers or more
5. Handrail to be 34"-38" tall
6. Min 3 risers, max 10 risers between landings


Day sun is highest (Northern Hemisphere)

June 21


Building Sewer

Portion of horizontal piping between the building and main line

- Actual connection between building and main must occur above the invert
- Minimum slope is 0.5% to 2.0% depending on piping size
- Sometimes longer run is needed in order to connect to lower invert to allow for proper slope


Pedestrian Circulation Design Guidelines

1. Collector walks needed by parking areas
2. Min slope of 1/4" per ft perpendicular to direction of travel
3. 5' min width for typ walks
4. 6'-8' min width for main walks
5. 6' min width for walks where cars can overhang
6. Provide required lighting, seating, and trash containers


Sun Control Additive Solutions

1. Deciduous trees to shield low buildings from summer sun
2. Overhangs for summer sun on South facades
3. Vertical baffles for summer sun on West and East facades
4. Louvers - exterior are more effective than interior



Contour lines that point in the direction of the upslope


Passive Solar Heating Strategies

1. Orient long axis of building along East-West direction to maximize Southern exposure
2. Use thermal mass
3. Use deciduous trees to shade during summer, but let light fall on windows during winter


Wind's Influence on Building Design by Climate Type

Hot/Humid: Orient building and locate windows, plazas, etc. to take advantage of cooling breezes and natural ventilation
Temperate: Wind analysis needed
Cold: Shield building from winds to reduce heat loss using vegetation, buildings, screens, fences, etc.


Handicap Parking Sizes

1. 8' wide space
2. 5' wide accessible route
3. 8' wide van-accessible route
4. Ramp not allowed with van-accessible space


Metes and Bounds Description

A running narrative describing with words what the boundaries are as one starts at one point of the property and moves around the entire site


Active Solar

Converts solar energy into usable light or heat, causes air movement for ventilation or cooling, or stores heat for future use

- Can be an adverse visual statement unless on sloped roofs or behind parapets
- Position so as not to reflect on other buildings or occupied areas
- Position so as to avoid being shaded by buildings and trees


Sheet Flow

Water that drains across a sloping surface



Additional stormwater that does not seep into the ground


Parking Guidelines

1. Driven by individual zoning ordinances
2. 90 Degree parking is most efficient for land use
3. Angled parking is easier to use, requires less total width, and forces one-way circulation
4. Double loaded is most efficient
5. Dead end areas require backup space


Solar Altitude

Angle of the sun above the horizon


Parking Planting Guidelines

1. Planting strips with trees should be at least 7' wide
2. Planting strips for grass should be at least 4' wide


Best Overall Orientation for a Building (Northern Hemisphere)

South, or just east of south



Method of generating electrical power by converting sunlight into direct current electricity

- Require large surfaces
- Can be facade-integrated