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Flashcards in SPD - AREndurance Deck (117)
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1

Zoning

- Uniform standards of construction originating in NYC in 1916 to protect the health, welfare, and safety of people
- Regulates the use of land, light, air, and open space while protecting property values and protecting and nuisances, undesirable businesses, and dangers

2

Incentive Zoning

Encourages private developers to provide amenities for public use in exchange for the opportunity to build larger or taller structures on a site

3

Nonconforming Use

Building is no longer permitted by the zoning ordinance, but typically allowed to stay unless it's unsafe

4

Conditional Use

Building that is permitted in an area that it is not zoned for, to benefit the public

5

Variance

A request by an owner on a private site for a deviation from an ordinance or code in order to avoid hardship. Two types: area variance and a use variance.

6

Spot Zoning

A change in the zoning ordinance for a particular area. The result of either a conditional use permit or a use variance.

7

Ordinance

A municipal law

8

Setbacks

Required open space measured between property line and face of building

9

Building Line

Utilized by communities principally to achieve planned street patterns by insuring building will not be erected in certain areas.

10

Easement

Legal right of government or another land owner to use someone else's property for a specific purpose

11

Scenic Easement

Prevents development that upsets something scenic to the public

12

Assessment

Valuation of property for the purpose of taxes

13

Business Improvement Districts

Use to fund public space improvements with the intention that it will enhance an area's appeal. All business owners who would benefit pay increased taxes

14

Eminent Domain

Power of the state to take private property without owner's consent, but with fair market value of the land compensation. Must be used for government or public development (highways, railroads, civic center), economic development, or to mandate an easement for access

15

Deed Restrictions

Limitations on the use of the property, typically by original developers, who determined what land would be used for (live, work, or play) and can't be changed by future owners

16

Restrictive Covenant

Limitations and stipulations used in residential settings. Can be aesthetic (vegetation types, allowable colors), pet control (dogs/cats), or storage related (visibility of parked cars)

17

Affirmative Covenant

The covenanter binds himself to performing a duty that has already been done or shall be done to the future (i.e. payments for updates made to common spaces in condo)

18

Conditional Covenant

If restriction is violated or disregarded, the land will revet back to original owners/heirs

19

Covenant

A type of contractual agreement.

20

Negative Covenant

The covenanter binds himself to having not performed a duty and agreeing to not perform it in the future.

21

Right-of-Way

A type of easement that gives a party the right to a make way over a piece of land. Usually it is granted for transportation purposes (highway, public footpath, canal, railway, electrical lines, gas lines, etc)

22

One Acre

43,560 SF

23

US Survey System

In the 1780s, the US divided land that was not already surveyed into a square grid system
- Check: 24x24 mi.
- Township: 6x6 mi.
- Section: 1x1 mi.
- Quarter Section: 1/2x1/2 mi.

24

Space/Site Planning Heirarchy

1. Total Building Group
2. Component Building
3. Activity Center
4. Space Unit

Example: Medical Campus > Acute Care Hospital > Surgery Dept. > Pre-Op Suite

25

Roman Roads

Cardo: The main road, rain N-S, root of the word caridinal
Decumanus: The secondary road, ran E-W

26

Loop Road

A collector/distributor road into into a main center (i.e. shopping)

27

Color

Visual perception of reflected light that articulates form and space

28

Light

Radiant energy that is perceived by the human eye

29

Local Road

Low capacity roads with direct access to a site

30

Collector Road

Connection roads between local and arterial streets