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When did the Latin American countries get their independence from Spain?

beginning of the 19th century


What happened on the domestic scene of the Latin American countries that obtained independence from Spain?

Internal struggle for power


What were the two wings that fought to obtain power in Latin American countries?

1. The elite, land lords, oligarchs
2. The middle class


What is a creole?

Cultural mixture of the empire and the indigenous people


What was one of the biggest mistakes comited by Spain during its reign over Latin American countries?

High ranking people from Spain never visited the countries


When were the ibero-American conferences important?

During the 90s


What is the status of the ibero-American conference today?

It is not useful anymore, and must be reformed


What is the difference of the power balance between Spain and Latin American countries today?

Latin American countries are stronger today than before, and can not be treated as colonies anymore.


What have diversified interests in Latin American countries resulted in?

Relations with other States such as China, Russia and India


The economic crisis in Spain in 2008 meant that

Investments in Latin America can not be as strong, Spain can not invest in the public sector anymore


What are three issues on the Spanish domestic scene that has decreased relations with Latin American countries?

1. The economic crisis of 2008
2. The failure in obtaining a common national foreign policy.
3. It is a middle power that depends on other powers


What are the characteristics of the Spanish foreign policy towards Latin America the past years?

many speeches, but no direct relations


What are four characteristics of the Latin American countries that limits Spains resolve in FP towards this region?

1. The countries have evolved drastically from each other, and very different from each other

2. Increased relations with China, Russia and India

3. Latin American countries are able to act independently, and does not depend on European countries and the EU

4. Most Latin American countries were able to survive the economic crisis of 2008 better than many European countries and the US


What are the three elements from 1976 that Celestino highlights?

1. Spain is limited in its means to reach ends in its foreign policy towards Latin America

2. US interests has limited Spains attempt to obtain a policy in the region

3. Spain is being conditioned by its membership in the EU


What impact did Spains alignment with Washington have on its relations with European countries?

it has weakened its position


Three important events in Spains policy towards Latin America after 2002

1. Spains presidency in the EU in first half of the 2000, and the EU-latin america summit

2. The change to a foreign minister with no business ideas towards the region. The minister held no profile in international affairs nor in economic matters

3. The PPs support for the Bush administrations interventions in Iraq and the growing Atlanticism.


Is Spains approach towards Latin America a regional or a bilateral?

Bilateral. Different approaches towards different countries


Has bilateral or regional approaches proved more efficient?



Is Spain independent in its policies towards Latin America?

No. It is impacted by the interest of the EU, and its alignment with Washington


Why have Spanish companies had comparative advantage in Latin American countries?

lingustic, cultural and historical ties


What happened with Spains strategy after September 11?

It changed its strategy to build a stronger connection with the US


When did the second stage of Spains Latin American policies start?



What are three areas of differences that PP tried to establish in respect to previous socialist policies?

1. Restructuring the foreign ministry. Shifted through only cooperating througfh the ibero-american institute to coordinate the whole spanish foreign policy. The institutionalisation of the prime ministers role in coordinating the foreign policy.

2. The alignment with the US policy. pressure castro on cuba

3. cultural policy to raise its profile in Latin America


Who was the cultural policy of the PP directed towards?

The elite


What has happened with the bilateral official development aid for Latin America?

The amount has decreased in precent related to gross national income.


what are positive aspects of the ibero-american summit?

it creates a basis for regulation and institutionalisation of mechanisms and procedures


What are the main problems in regards of the ibero-american summit

- members no longer see it as a multilateral mechanism to obtain equality

- Spains hedgemony and the high indpendence on Spains contribution to the budget