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Flashcards in Somatic Symptoms and Related Disorders Deck (43)
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1

Types of DSM-V (2013) Somatoform Disorders 4

1. Somatic symptom disorder

2. Conversion disorder

3. Illness anxiety disorder

4. Other specified somatic symptom and related disorder.

2

DSM IV (1994)

1. Somatization disorder

2. Hypochondriasis

3. Conversion Disorder

4. Pain Disorder

5. Body Dysmorphic Disorder

6. Undifferentiated Somatoform Disorder

7. Somatoform Disorder NOS

3

Somatic Symptom Disorder is defined as?

A. One or more somatic symptoms that are distressing or result in significant disruption of daily life.

B. Excessive thoughts, feelings, or behaviors related to the somatic symptoms or associated health concerns as manifested by at least one of the following:

1. Disproportionate and persistent thoughts about the seriousness of one’s symptoms.

2. Persistently high level of anxiety about health or symptoms.

3. Excessive time and energy devoted to these symptoms or health concerns.

C. Although any one somatic symptom may not be continuously present, the state of being symptomatic is persistent (typically more than 6 months).

-Specify if: With predominant pain (previously pain disorder)

-Specify if: Persistent: A persistent course is characterized by severe symptoms, marked impairment, and long duration (more than 6 months).

-Specify current severity: mild, moderate, or severe.

4

SOMATIC SYMTPOM DISORDER Excessive thoughts, feelings, or behaviors related to the somatic symptoms or associated health concerns as manifested by at least one of the following: 3

1. Disproportionate and persistent thoughts about the seriousness of one’s symptoms.

2. Persistently high level of anxiety about health or symptoms.

3. Excessive time and energy devoted to these symptoms or health concerns.

5

SOMATIC SYMTPOM DISORDER Although any one somatic symptom may not be continuously present, the state of being symptomatic is persistent (typically more than 6 months). What things do you have to specify?

1. Specify if: With predominant pain (previously pain disorder)

2. Specify if: Persistent: A persistent course is characterized by severe symptoms, marked impairment, and long duration (more than 6 months).

3. Specify current severity: mild, moderate, or severe.

6

Somatoform symptoms 4

1. Symptoms suggest a physical disorder

2. Symptoms cannot adequately be explained physiologically

3. Symptoms are often (but not always) described in dramatic ways 4. Other disorders, such as anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and personality disorders, often co-exist

7

Characteristics of the somatoform patient? 4

1. Not improving

2. Pain everywhere

3. Your most difficult pt

4. Come in every day

8

Characteristics of Somatization Disorder? 4

 

Treatment? 3

 

Causes? 3

9

Physical symtpoms of somatoform disorder

10

1. Age of onset?

2. HOw will lit present in Kids?

3. Course?

4. Culture: cultural influences appear to affect what?

5. Symptoms vary across cultures. examples?

6. Lower levels of somatization d/o with what?

 

1. older…natural aging

2. tummy aches (do we teach them?)

3. Chronic, rarely cured

4. Culture: cultural influences appear to affect the gender ratios and body locations of somatoform d/o (Greek and Puerto Rican cultures report higher rates among men than is the case for the US)

5. Symptoms vary across cultures (e.g. burning hands and feet, “worms in the head”, “ants under the skin” much more common in Africa and South Asia)

6. Lower levels of somatization d/o with higher education levels

 

11

Pathopysiology of somatoform disorder?

Need to be sick!

Becoming physically sick is less stressfull than being unsuccessfull

“There is no medicine or

surgery to remove the

need to be sick”

 

12

Somatization Disorder: Causes? 3

Causes

1. Family history of illness

2. Relation with antisocial personality disorder

3. Weak behavioral inhibition system

13

Somatic Symptom Disorder: Treatment?  4

1. No treatment proves superior effectiveness

2. However, we need to reduce visits to numerous medical specialists

3. Assign one main Primary Care Provider

4. Reduce supportive consequences of talk about symptoms

14

Things to focus on and manage with patients that have somatoform?

4

1. Allow patient role

2. Concentrate on functions

3. Frequent, short visits

4. Single provider

15

1. Conversion Disorder is what?

2. Onset, reappearance, termination of disease?

3. Mostly found in who? 2

1. Physical symptoms suggesting neurological problems

-Sensory impairment: Any modality

-Paresthesias, blindness, paralysis

2. Sudden onset, sudden termination, sudden reappearance

2. Mostly women; men in combat

 

 

Often misdiagnosed

La belle indifference: 1/3 of cases

16

Facts about Conversion Disorder

1. Age of onset?

2. Course?

3. Culture: Found in who commonly? 3

1. Age of Onset:  Late childhood- early adulthood rarely before 10 or after 35

2. Course:  Onset acute or sudden, symptoms remit after about 2 weeks, but recur approximately 25% of the time

3. Culture:  

-More common in rural areas,

-lower SES, and

-lower educational levels

17

Conversion Disorder…criteria

6

A.  One or more symptoms or deficits affecting voluntary   motor or sensory function that suggest a Neurological or other General Medical Condition

B.   Psychological factors are judged to be associated with the symptom or deficit because the initiation or exacerbation of the symptom or deficit is preceded by conflicts or other stressors

C.   The symptom or deficit is not intentionally feigned (as in Factitious Disorder or Malingering)

D. The symptom or deficit cannot, after appropriate investigation, be fully explained by a general medical condition, or by the direct effects of a substance, or as a culturally sanctioned behavior or experience

E. The symptom or deficit causes clinically significant distress or impairment in functioning

F. The symptom or deficit is not limited to pain or sexual dysfunction, does not occur exclusively during the course of Somatization Disorder, and is not better accounted for by another mental disorder

 

18

Characteristics of Conversion Disorders? 4

Treatment? 2

Causes? 3

19

Conversion Disorder: Causes

4

Causes

1. Freudian psychodynamic view is still popular

2. Focus on past trauma and conversion

3. Address primary and secondary gain

4. Detachment from the trauma

 

20

Conversion Disorder:  Treatment

4

1. Similar to somatization disorder

2. Core strategy is attending to the trauma

3. Remove success of secondary gain

4. Reduce supportive consequences of talk about symptoms

21

Illness Anxiety Disorder

1. What isn't necessary for Dx?

2. Why do they have severe anxiety?

3. Preoccupied with what feelings?

4. Interactions with providers? 2

5. What do they overly report?

1. No physical symptoms are necessary

2. Severe anxiety- the possibility of having a disease

3. Preoccupied with the possibility that normal sensations are symptoms of serious disease

4.

-Frequent visits to providers

-Persists despite medical reassurance

5. Over-report bodily sensations

22

Illness Anxiety Disorder

Criteria?

6

1. Preoccupation with having or acquiring a serious illness.

2. Somatic symptoms are not present or, if present, are only mild in intensity.

3. There is a high level of anxiety about health, and the individual is easily alarmed about personal health status.

4. The individual performs excessive health related behaviors or exhibits maladaptive avoidance.

5. Illness preoccupation has been present for at least 6 months, but the specific illness that is feared may change over time.

6. The illness-related preoccupation is not better explained by another mental disorder.

23

Facts about Illness Anxiety Disorder

1. Gender?

2. Age of onset?

3. Course?

4. Assocations?5

1. Gender:  Equal

2. Age of Onset:  any age, most common early adult

3. Course: Chronic, but waxes and wanes

4. Associations:  

-Fears of aging and death,

-“doctor shopping”,

-poor relationships with providers,

-past experience with disease,

-family and work problems

24

Illness Anxiety Disorder

Main Characteristic? 4

1. "Disease of having disease”

2. Severe anxiety

3. No insight

4. Resistant, causing functional losses

25

Illness Anxiety Disorder:  

1. Causes 2

2. Treatment 2

 

1. Causes

-Cognitive perceptual distortions

-Familial history of illness

2. Treatment

-Challenge illness-related misinterpretations

-Provide more substantial and sensitive reassurance

 

26

Biological factors that might contribute to Illness Anxiety Disorder? 3

1. One sign (objective indicator) of anxiety is an increased level of cortisol, a stress hormone.  Cortisol levels are elevated in patients with somatization disorder.

2. But there is no concordance in twin studies for any somatoform disorder.

3. The right hemisphere may be implicated in conversion disorder, symptoms of which are more likely in the left half of the body.  The right hemisphere is involved in emotional experience and expression.

27

Describe the cycle for Illness Anxiety Disorder

6 steps in the cycle

28

Other Specified Somatic Symptom and Related Disorder (DSM V)

4

1.  Brief somatic symptom disorder:  less than 6 months.

2.  Brief illness anxiety disorder:  less than 6 months.

3.  Illness anxiety disorder without excessive health-related behaviors:  Criteria D for illness anxiety disorder is not met.

4.  Pseudocyesis:  False belief you are pregnant.

29

Unspecified Somatic Symptom and Related Disorder

1. Characterized as?

2. Don't use unless what?

1. They definitely cause distress…..but don’t fit anywhere else.

2. Don’t use unless there are decidedly unusual situations where there is insufficient information to make a more specific diagnosis

30

Somatoform Disorder NOS

2

1. Pseudocyesis (False Pregnancy)….all the s/s of pregnancy except for the presence of a fetus

2. Hypochondriacal symptoms less than 6 months