Flashcards in Solar system composition Deck (39)
Why does stellar nucleosynthesis make elements only up to iron
Elements after that require more energy put in than you get out
What kinds of achondrites are there
Iron rich and basaltic
What are the big four terrestrial building elements
O, Fe, Mg, Si
What is the total mass of the asteroid belt between mars and jupiter
4% of the moons mass
Why Jovian planets are further away from the sun
since composed of volatile gases, they stay where it is cold so they can make ice from the those volatile gases
Define escape velocity
The minimum energy needed for a atom to escape the gravitational pull of a planet
What two factors discussed in class can influence the escape velocity of an atom
The heat of the planet, and the mass of the planet
Define homogenous accretion
The metal core of earth formed by separation of metal from silicate rock
Define impact hypothesis
Huge asteroid hits earth, debris flung up accumulate into the formation of the moon
Define the Kuiper belt
belt of dusty ice that extends beyond neptune
Why did the earth segregate into layers?
The molten planet separated into relative density and chemical affinity
Define atmophile elements
Gas and liquid loving elements. Contain water, CO2, and nitrogen. found mostly in sea and atmosphere
Define lithophile elements
Reside in silicate materials. Found primarily in crust and mantle. contain Si, Mg, O, Ca, and Al.
Define the siderphile elements
Prefer to be in metallic state. Include iron, nickel, gold, silver, and platinum. Found primarily in the earths core.
Define chalcophile elements
Sulfur- (Ore) loving. substantial overlap with siderphile elements.
What element can reside in lithophiles, siderphiles, and chalcophiles?
Define magmaphile elements
Elements with very large size and weight that do not combine to form silicates. Therefore, dissociate into magma when partial melting occurs. Found primarily, however, in the crust.
Define heterogenous accretion
Theory that the iron-rich meteorites accreted first, forming core, and the silicate meteorites accreted after, forming mantle
What is peculiar about the moon? (4)
1. Very low density
2. very large (larger than mercury)
3. almost perfect circular orbit
4. oxygen isotope signature is identical to earth
What is the capture hypothesis
Earth and moon were two planets with similar orbits, earth captured moon to an orbit around it
What is the fission hypothesis
states that a piece of moten earth blebbed off and formed moon
What is the mini solar system hypothesis (co-accretion process)
The moon formed from left over debris that orbited around earth
what was likely the compositionof the first crust?
over time, due to periods of partial melting of the basaltic crust, what would have been the composition of the knew continental crust?
What is the lunar maria
the black, relatively uncratered areas of the moons surface
What are the lunar highlands
Areas of the moon that are cratered
What does the amount of cratering on the moon tell about its age?
The more craters, the older it is
What has not happened on the moon surface in 2.5 billion years
surface renewal processes
How were the sea and atmosphere formed?
volcanic degassing, comet impacts, and core-mantle segregation