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Flashcards in Sociology exam review Deck (29)
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1

School of thought: structural interactionism
(individuals)

- studies human interactions at micro level
- emphasizes individuals as they can relate to larger society and believe this is how we understand society

2

School of thought: Weber
(diverse)

- structural functionalist
- believed society was becoming more diverse resulting in functional differentiation

3

School of thought: Chicago school
(environment and structures)
(masks)

- physical environment and social structures shape behaviour
- Charles Cooley: individuals shape society and society shapes individuals
- George Mead: we create masks for situations

4

School of thought: structural functionalism
(define ourselves and controversy)

- society is stable when all needs are met
- Durkheim: we define ourselves through social interactions
- Parsons: social phenomena shapes our society *controversial*

5

School of thought: functional differentiation

- divisions created dealing w/ environment (roles)

6

School of thought: feminist sociology
(patriarchy)

- examines gender inequality and how men have more control over women's lives

7

School of thought: conflict theory
(competition)

- Karl Marx
- competition btwn social groups for power

8

Auguste Comte

- applied rational method to study of society and called this discipline sociology

9

values

- shared ideas and standards of a society (equality)

10

norms

- expected behaviour considered normal (cheering)

11

roles

- expected behaviour of a person in a position (parent)

12

objectivity

-

13

universality

-

14

socialization types
(4)

1. primary: basic necessities (emotions, language, etc)
2. secondary: how to function in groups (raising hand)
3. anticipatory: how to act accordingly (what to wear)
4. resocialization: changing a socialization (prison)

15

agents of socialization:
(7)

1. family (primary): usually first socialization
2. school (secondary): teach formal rules
3. peer groups (secondary): chance to commit discouraged actions
4. media (secondary and anticipatory): impact life expectations
5. religion (secondary): influence community beliefs
6. workplace (secondary): teach workplace rules
7. total institutions (resocialization): get rid of bad behaviour

16

types of groups
(4)

1. dyad- group of 2 (relationship)
2. informal- less intimate (neighbour)
3. primary- small influential groups (family)
4. secondary- large less intimate groups (community)

17

Deviance

- behaviour going against societal norms describing destructive behaviour

18

Strain Theory

- Robert Merton
- society causes deviancy: when people can't meet goals they participate in deviant actions to reach them.

19

alienation and the two types

- when people have unequal access of societal rewards
1. micro: left out in friend group
2. macro: LGBTQ+ community fighting for equality

20

subcultures and countercultures

- sub: small group w/in society sharing values of larger culture but share common identities deviating from norms
- counter: deviantly oppose dominant culture and reject their values and norms

21

collective and prosocial behaviour

- collective: behaviour of a large group not reflecting societal rules w/ no relation btw each other (isn't unusual)
- prosocial: behaviours binding society together

22

convergence and rational decision theory

- convergence: large group causes more people to join
- rational: deciding to join behaviour based on your threshold (high=no, low=yes)

23

sanctions and conformity

- sanctions: reward/punishment encouraging or discouraging behaviour
- conformity: changing thoughts and beliefs to meet group expectations

24

discrimination, stereotypes, and scapegoats

- discrimination: act of treating groups unfairly
- stereotype: exaggerated views about groups
- scapegoat: target for discrimination

25

discrimination theories and ethnocentrism

- learned: learned through agents of socialization
- competition: protection of similar people and fear/blaming of others
- frustration: frustration w/ situations taking it out on others
- ignorance: lack of experience
- ethnocentrism: evaluating cultures based on your own personal views

26

social identity

- how we identify in the word
- socialization is how we learn norms and identities

27

role theory

- expectations of positions in society

28

gender roles

- identities we take or believe in for a lifetime
- gender influenced by society and interactions
- sex is biological

29

social institutions

- organizations functioning to meet societal needs by providing direction and principles