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Flashcards in Sociology Deck (87)
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1

Absolute Poverty

the state of existence of those who have so little income that they can barely stay alive

2

Achieved Status

is a changeable status that is acquired on the basis of how well an individual performs a particular role

3

Bourgeoisie

according to Marx, is one of the two main classes in the capitalist mode of production. The owners of the means of production

4

Caste System

is a closed stratification system, most common in India, with strict rule regarding the type of work that members of different castes (the strata of Indian society into which people are born) can do

5

Circulatory Mobility

us the occupational mobility that occurs within a society when better-qualified individuals move upward to replace those who are less qualified and who must consequently move downward

6

Class

is a position in an economic hierarchy occupied individuals or families with similar access to, or control over, material resources

7

Class Conflict

according to Marx, is conflict between classes within a mode of production. it eventually leads to the evolution of a new mode of production

8

Class Consciousness

according to Marx, is the recognition by members of a class of their shared interests in opposition to members of another class

9

Class Structure

is the relatively permanent economic hierarchy comprising different social classes

10

Closed Stratification System

a stratification system in which little or no social mobility occurs, because most of all statuses are absorbed

11

Contradictory Class locations

according to Wright, are the locations within a class structure populated by occupational groupings with divided loyalties (managers)

12

Exclusion

according to Parkin, is the organized effort by privileged, more powerful groups to maintain their advantaged position

13

Stratification: Fuctionalism

views social organization as analogous to a biological organism in which the parts (or organs) exist because of the functions they perform in maintaining the whole. In this theory, stratification exists because of vital functions it presumable performs in maintaining social equilibrium

14

Intergenerational Occupational Mobility

refers to an individual's occupational mobility, wither upward or downward, in relation to her or his parents' occupational status

15

Intragenerational Occupational Mobility

refers to an individual's occupational mobility, either upward or downward, within his or her own lifetime

16

Life-Chances

according to Weber, are the opportunites (or lack thereof) for a higher standard of living and a better quality of life that are available to members of a given class

17

LICO

the poverty line - an estimate of the income level below which a person or family might be considered to be living in relative poverty. It is defined by Stats Canada as the level of income at which more than 63 percent of income is spent on basic necessities

18

Means of Production

accoridng to Marx, are one of the main components of a mode of production, consisting of the technology, capital investments, and raw materials used in production

19

Meritocracy

a society in which most of all statues are achieved on the basis of merit (how well a person performs a given role)

20

Mode of Production

according to Marx, is the system of economic activity in a society, comprising the means of production and the social relations of production

21

Occupational Status Attainment

refers to the process whereby an individual attains a particular occupational status and the factors that influence that process

22

Open Stratification System

a stratification system in which merit, rather than inheritance, determines social rank

23

Petite Bourgeoisie

according to Marx, is a secondary class within the capitalist mode of production, including independent owners/producers and small-business owners

24

Power

is the ability to impose one;s will on others

25

Proletariat

according to Marx, is one of the two main classes in a capitalist mode of production, comprising workers who exchange their labour for wage

26

Social Closure

according to Weber and Parkin, refers to the methods used by relatively powerful groups to maintain their unequal access to status and resources, and to exclude others from such access

27

Social mobiliy

is the process whereby individuals, families or other groups move up or down a status hierarchy

28

Social Relations of Production

according to Marx, are one of the main components of a given mode of production - specifically, the relationships between the main classes involved in the production

29

Social Stratification

refers to persistent patterns of social inequality perpetuates by the way wealth, power and prestige are distributed and passed from one generation to the next

30

Status

is a culturally and socially defined position that a person occupies in a group