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A Level Politics UK and Ideologies > Socialism > Flashcards

Flashcards in Socialism Deck (52)
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1

What was the origins of the enlightenment

The enlightenment

2

What is the overall view of human nature

Positive

3

Liberals believe in equality of opportunity, what is it that socialists believe in

Equality of outcome

4

Who were the levellers

All about levelling the playing field

Argued god has given the land to ALL of mankind and yet some had used this as greed and acquired the land for themselves

5

What did the so called utopian socialists Charles Fourier and Robert Owen do

Created independent communities based on communal ownership and production and equal distribution of resources and a culture of tolerance and permissiveness

6

What major event in history where socialist ideas began to be taken seriously

The industrial revolution

7

Name four socialist fundamental principles

1) equality of outcome is more important than individual liberty
2) state must provide welfare so that all can prosper
3) state should own means of production
4) comradeship- strong collective organisations eg trade unions

8

What is comradeship

Looking out for your brother

9

Describe socialist view of human nature

-optimistic
-individuals are naturally cooperative, generous and altruistic
-comradeship
-human nature is something malleable rather than permanently
-fixed they are optimistic about how it could be in the future

10

What for socialists was the major consequence of the industrial revolution

The emergence of distinct classes

11

What is the socialist view on society

-argue that an individuals status, priorities and prospects are all shaped by the social class he or she is born into
-egalitarian doctrine= equality of society and equal society

12

Give an example of equality of outcome

affirmative action

13

What is the main priority of socialism

What will be the consequence of not achieving this

- to narrow the gap between rich and poor

Consequence:
Society will continue to lack fraternity, cooperation and solidarity and instead will foster greed, envy, resentment and division

14

What do socialists believe in as opposed to common ownership

Private property and capitalism

15

How do socialists see the economy

-One that provides greater workers control in employment and
-Politics of Robin Hood “taking from the rich and giving to the poor”


Principles:
-rejection of laissez faire capitalism
- greater collectivism

16

What is collectivism

State control
Common ownership
-progressive taxation- richer classes contribute more
- progressive public spending
-extensive state regulation of capitalism to prevent exploitation

17

Explain socialist views on the state

- strong state vital to create a fairer and more equal society
- decision making reflects equality and empowerment of the people

18

What does Marx argue about the state

The state will eventually wither away

This will lead to the end of history

19

What are the two broad categories of socialism

Fundamentalist socialism
Revisionist socialism

20

What do fundamentalist socialists believe in

Completely Against private ownership and capitalism

21

What is a revisionist socialist

Socialism can be achieved alongside private property and is compatible and can co-exist with capitalism

22

where do some fundamental socialists vary in views

some argue for revolutionary change destroying the capitalist economy and the state which supports it

others would gradually take down the structures of capitalism via evolutionary change within the confines of the existing state

23

what was the name of the first type of socialism to provide a detailed plan for the future

classical Marxism

24

what did karl marx argue capitalism promoted

exploitation
alienation
oppression

25

for marx and engels what was the final destination for society

what was the name for this process

the end of history

historical maternalism

26

briefly explain historical maternalism

1)primitive societies
2) slave based societies
3)emergence of capitalism
4) emergence of proletariat and class consciousness
5) destruction of capitalism
6) socialism
7) communism
8) end of history

27

for what reason was capitalism historically doomed

class consciousness and the belief in revolution

28

revolution would create a new state, 'the dictatorship of the proletariat' what would this obliterate

all traces of liberal capitalist values
this would pave the way for a stateless communist society based on common ownership

29

define proletariat

the collective term for the working class

30

when was the russian revolution

1917