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Flashcards in Social Influence Deck (81)
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1

Conformity

A form of social influence where people adopt the behaviour, attitudes and values of other members of a group

2

Types of conformity

Compliance
Internalisation
Identification

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Compliance

Agreeing publicly, but not privately
Behaviour stops as soon as pressure stops
Explained by NSI

4

Internalisation

Deepest type of conformity
Agrees both publicly and privately
Explained by ISI

5

Identification

Confirm because we value and identify with the group
Publicly and privately accept the behaviour
Temporary - not maintained when individuals leave the group

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Explanations for conformity

ISI
NSI

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ISI

Results from our need to be correct
Turning to others when uncertain and conforming as they have more knowledge
Happens in unfamiliar and ambiguous situations, where the group is believed to be experts

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NSI

Result of need to be liked and seem as part of the group
Humans are social species with a fundamental need for social companionship
The individual must believe they are under surveillance from the group

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Why did Asch do variations of his original study

Methodology was varied slightly in order to investigate what factors lead to an increase or decrease in conformity

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Consent

All ppts need to give informed consent to say that they agree to take part in the study

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Deception

Psychologists should avoid misleading/lying to ppts about the nature of the study.
Not always possible

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Confidentiality

All ppt’s data must be kept private and confidential. Ppt must be told at the beginning of the study if this isn’t possible

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Debriefing

Ppt’s must be told the true nature of the investigation and get told that they can withdraw their data at any point

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Withdrawal

Ppts have the right to withdraw at any time
Mustn’t be made to feel like they can’t

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Protection

Researchers have a responsibility to protect ppts from physical and mental harm
Any negative effects should be dealt with after the study

16

External validity

Whether the findings of a study can be generalised to situations and people other than those in the study e.g. other population, location, time

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Ecological validity

A specific type of external validity referring to generalisations beyond the immediate setting to the real world

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Internal validity

Whether the variables which were manipulated in the study cause the results, or it was due to other circumstances (demand characteristics)

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Social roles

The ‘parts’ people play as members of various social groups

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Characteristics of authoritarian personality

Hostile to those of an inferior status
Obedient and servile to those of an higher status
Highly conventional attitudes towards sex, race and gender
Have traditional values in terms of religion, family, love of country
Inflexible in their outlook

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Origin of the authoritarian personality

Extremely strict discipline
Expectation of absolute loyalty
Impossibly high standards
Severe criticisms of perceived failings
Conditional love

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What type of conformity does minority influence lead to

Internalisation - it affects the private behaviour first

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Processes of minority influence

Consistency (within group and over time)
Commitment
Flexibility

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Snowball effect

When the minority gains followers

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Tipping point

When the minority becomes the majority

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How does social change occur

The snowball effect
The tipping point
Conformity then takes over (ISI/NSI)
Governments then make laws and obedience takes over

27

Research support for ISI

Sherif

28

Negative points of explanations of conformity

NSI can’t be used to universally explain behaviour -> nAffiliators/ Teevan and McGhee -> individual differences
ISI doesn’t affect everyone the same way -> Perrin and Spencer (1980) - 1/396 conformed - > high self efficacy
ISI and NSI proposed differently but work together -> unanimity variation reduces NSI and ISI -> not possible to be sure which is causing conformity

29

Asch’s method (1951)

123 male US undergrads asked to take part in perception test - matching ‘standard’ line to substantially diff. comparison lines
Groups of 7-8
Naive ppt sat second to last
Gave answers orally
Confederates asked to give correct answer first 6 times - 18 trials

30

Asch’s results

Average conformity rate on critical trial - 33%
25% never conformed
50% conformed 6+
5% conformed all 12
Mistakes made only 1% of the time in control condition
In post-study ppts said it was compliance and NSI