What is digestion?
Breaking down of food into its components
What is absorption?
Passage of nutrients into the body
What are the functions of the small intestine?
Endocrine and neuronal control (flow of material from stomach to colon)
When is the full length of the small intestine reached?
Usually by age 11
What is the average length of the small intestine?
What allows the small intestine to have such as large surface area?
Constant turnover of cells in crypts and villi
Why does the small intestine have a low bacterial population?
Toxic environment due to digestive enzymes, bile salts and IgA
What does maintaining control of digestion require?
Lots of fluid
Controlled hydroplysis to avoid fluid shifts
Sophisticated control of motility
Absorption against gradients
Onwards processing in the liver
What enzymes are in the stomach for digestion?
Why must digestion in the stomach be controlled?
Avoid osmotic shifts
What are proteins broken down into?
Oligopeotides and amino acids
What enzymes control the breakdown of protein?
Trypsin and chymotrypsin
What enzyme controls the breakdown of fat?
What is fat broken down into?
Glycerol and free fatty acids
What enzyme controls carbohydrate breakdown?
What does pancreatic amylase break carbohydrates down into?
What does the final digestion of carbohydrates?
Brush border disaccharidase
What are symptoms of small intestine disorders?
What is steatohoea caused by?
What is poo like for someone who has steatorrhoea?
High fat content
Stool less dense and floats
May leave an oily mark or oil droplets
What are signs of small intestinal disorders?
Signs of weight loss such as low or falling BMI
What are some examples of possible vitamin/mineral deficiencies?
What are signs of calcium, magnesium and vitamin D deficiency?
What is a sign of vitamin A deficiency?
What is a sign of vitamin K deficiency?
What are signs of thiamine deficiency?
What are signs of niacin deficiency?
Dermatitis, unexplained heart failure
What is a sign of vitamin C deficiency?
What is clubbing a sign of?