Small Intestinal Disorders and Investigations Flashcards Preview

07. Year 2: Alimentary System > Small Intestinal Disorders and Investigations > Flashcards

Flashcards in Small Intestinal Disorders and Investigations Deck (59)
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1

What is digestion?

Breaking down of food into its components

2

What is absorption?

Passage of nutrients into the body

3

What are the functions of the small intestine?

Digestion

Absorption

Endocrine and neuronal control (flow of material from stomach to colon)

Barrier functions

4

When is the full length of the small intestine reached?

Usually by age 11

5

What is the average length of the small intestine?

2.5-4.5m

6

What allows the small intestine to have such as large surface area?

Villous architecture

Constant turnover of cells in crypts and villi

7

Why does the small intestine have a low bacterial population?

Toxic environment due to digestive enzymes, bile salts and IgA

8

What does maintaining control of digestion require?

Lots of fluid

Controlled hydroplysis to avoid fluid shifts

Sophisticated control of motility

Absorption against gradients

Onwards processing in the liver

9

What enzymes are in the stomach for digestion?

Salivary amylase

Pepsin

10

Why must digestion in the stomach be controlled?

Avoid osmotic shifts

11

What are proteins broken down into?

Oligopeotides and amino acids

12

What enzymes control the breakdown of protein?

Trypsin and chymotrypsin

13

What enzyme controls the breakdown of fat?

Pancreatic lipase

14

What is fat broken down into?

Glycerol and free fatty acids

15

What enzyme controls carbohydrate breakdown?

Pancreatic amylase

16

What does pancreatic amylase break carbohydrates down into?

Disaccharides

17

What does the final digestion of carbohydrates?

Brush border disaccharidase

18

What are symptoms of small intestine disorders?

Weight loss

Increased appetite

Diarrhoea

Sometimes steatorrhoea

Bloating

Fatigue

19

What is steatohoea caused by?

Fat malabsorption

20

What is poo like for someone who has steatorrhoea?

High fat content

Stool less dense and floats

Pale

Foul smeeling

May leave an oily mark or oil droplets

21

What are signs of small intestinal disorders?

Signs of weight loss such as low or falling BMI

22

What are some examples of possible vitamin/mineral deficiencies?

Iron

B12

Ca2+, Mg2+

D

B9 (folate)

A

K

B complex

C

23

24

What are signs of calcium, magnesium and vitamin D deficiency?

Tatany

Osteomalacia

25

What is a sign of vitamin A deficiency?

Night blindness

26

What is a sign of vitamin K deficiency?

Raised PTR

27

What are signs of thiamine deficiency?

Memory, dementia

28

What are signs of niacin deficiency?

Dermatitis, unexplained heart failure

29

What is a sign of vitamin C deficiency?

Scurvy

30

What is clubbing a sign of?

Coeliac disease

Crohn's disease