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Flashcards in Small Animal Nursing Deck (537)
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181

Maintenance:
1) When potassium is increased, _____ decreases to maintain hydration

sodium

182

Don't use a ___ gauge needle, go big or go home and stick to 22 gauge for a small animal and 18 gauge for a large.

24

183

What is Diuresis used for?

to flush blood through kidneys to remove endotoxins (urea is a toxin that builds up in renal disease) by increasing urine production

184

The only difference between LRS and Normosol R is what?

that the buffer is acetate instead of lactate

185

What is important to remember about when giving potassium?

give it slowly and never IV (straight in vein), dilute IV bag

186

What are the different types of catheters?

1) butterfly (drugs/boluses of drugs for short period of time)
2) over-the-needle (catheters we use)
3) through-the-needle (long-term use)

187

How often do you flush a catheter? How long do you keep a regular catheter on?

every 4 hours with saline or heparin, 3 days maximum

188

Redness and inflammation of a blood vessel is called

phlebitis

189

When placing a catheter for short-term use you need the ___ catheter possible and _____ bore.

shortest, largest

190

When placing a catheter for long-term use you need the ___ catheter possible and _____ bore.

longest, biggest

191

What is Diuresis used for?

to flush blood through kidneys to remove endotoxins (urea is a toxin that builds up in renal disease) by increasing urine production

192

What are some disadvantages of Normosol R?

-Solutions containing acetate have been linked to causing hypotension when given to animals that are hypovolemic and/or hypothermic. Studies show this drop in blood pressure occurs about 30 minutes after administration, and that solutions like LRS and .9% NaCl, which do not contain acetate, do not show the same drop in blood pressure after administration. Whether or not this occurs in a clinical setting is up for debate.
-Though not designed for this use, Normosol-R is sometimes used as a maintenance solution. This can lead to mild electrolyte disturbances due to its high sodium and chloride levels and low potassium levels. Often, KCL will need to be added if Normosol-R is used as a maintenance solution.

193

Disadvantages of 2.5% Dextrose & 0.45% Saline (a.k.a. half and half)

-It contains no buffers, so it won't help to correct any pH disturbances.
-This solution contains no potassium, calcium, or magnesium. If being used as a maintenance solution, electrolyte additives would need to be considered to prevent decreased levels of these essential electrolytes.

194

Advantages of 2.5% Dextrose & 0.45% Saline (a.k.a. half and half)

-It contains 25 g/L of dextrose, which provides a small amount of glucose to help meet daily caloric needs. This amount, however, will not meet total daily caloric needs. This solution provides 85 kcal/L.
-It contains a lower amount of sodium than normal saline making it an ideal solution for those animals with sodium restrictions.

195

What is the anatomy of a tooth?

-Crown
-Enamel
-Dentin
-Cementum
-Root

196

What are the 3 skull types?

-Mesaticephalic (most common poodles, laboradors)
-Brachycephalic (boxers, pugs)
-Dolichocephalic (collie, greyhound)

197

Directional terms for the Maxilla:

Distal
Mesial (toward the midline)
Labial (the side of the tooth towards the lips)
Palatial (towards the palate)
Buccal (towards the cheek)

198

Directional terms for the Mandible:

Distal
Mesial (toward the midline)
Labial (the side of the tooth towards the lips)
Lingual (the side of the tooth towards the tongue)
Buccal (towards the cheek)

199

What is the dental formula for a dog?

2(I 3/3 C 1/1 P 4/4 M 2/3)= 42
puppy-2(i 3/3 c 1/1 p 3/3)=28

200

What is the dental formula for a cat?

2(I 3/3 C 1/1 PM 3/2 M 1/1)= 30
kitten-2(i 3/3 c1/1 m 3/2)= 26

201

The exposed or visible portion of the tooth above the gingival tissue

crown

202

Covering the crown is the ardest substance in the body, shiny outer layer of the crown, composed of hydroxyapatite crystalline components

enamel

203

Comprises the majority of the tooth consists of multiple tubules that extend from the pulp to outer surface. Tubules contain sensory fibers that register pain.

dentin

204

Calcified connective tissue (bony tissue) that covers the root surface of the tooth and acts as an attachment for the periodontal ligament

cementum

205

The unexposed or submerged portion of the tooth below the gingival tissue

root

206

What is the periodontium?

Supporting structures of the teeth

207

What is the anatomy of the periodontium?

-the gingiva (tissue surrounding the teeth )
-the cementum of the root
-the periodontal ligament (holds the tooth into the alveolar bone it is attached to cementum and alveolar socket)
-the alveolar bone or socket(surrounds and supports the root of the tooth)

208

An epithelial collar often not directly attached to the tooth also called free gingiva

Gingival margin

209

The space between the tooth and the free gingiva

Gingival sulcus

210

The border between the attached gingiva and looser mucosa

Mucogingival junction