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Flashcards in Small Animal Nursing Deck (537)
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151

How does an animal lose water on a hot summer day?

panting->thirst(compensatory mechanism)

152

Potassium is vital to cellular _____ and cell _____

metabolism, death

153

Fluid inside a cell increases in solutes and moves into the cell and causes it to burst

hypotonic

154

What does hyperkalemia lead to?

bradycardia, arrhythmias, and addison's disease

155

10kg patient, Venoset 15 gtt/ml
Maintenance: 50ml/kg/24hr
Dehydration Deficit: 10% dehydrated
Apply 80% rule
Contemporary Losses: Vomited 4x 2tsp for 2 days

10kg x 50ml/kg/24 hr = 500ml/24 hrs
10kg x 0.1 x 1000ml = 1000ml x 0.8 (80% rule)= 800ml (1st 24 hours then 200ml the 2nd 24 hours)
Contemporary losses: 4 x (10ml x 2)= 80ml x 2 days= 160ml
500ml + 800ml + 160ml=1460ml
1460ml/24hrs = 60.8 ml/hr
60.8/3600 sec= 0.016ml/sec or 0.02ml/sec
Venoset 15gtt 0.02ml/sec x 15gtt/ml= 0.3 gtt/sec or 1 gtt/3sec

156

Plasma protein concentration:
1) increase in proteins causes an increase in ____ and will cause movement of ____

1) oncotic pressure, water

157

Concentration of proteins

oncotic pressure

158

22kg patient 4%dehydrated, no vomiting or diarrhea Maintenance ordered at 60ml/kg apply 80% rule Venoset 15gtt/ml

22 x 60=1320 maintenance
22 x .04 x 1000ml = 880ml x .8= 704ml
2024ml/24 hrs, 84/hr 0.02 ml sec x 15= .3 gtt/sec or 1 gtt/3 sec

159

How long does it take for SQ fluids to be absorbed? Why?

6-8 hours, severely dehydrated because of constriction

160

What are some errors when shaving for a catheter?

clipper burn, not shaving far enough down

161

One mechanism to gain water: Sends message to hypothalamus->__-> animal drinks dehydration hypoperfusion of the ___.

ADH, kidneys

162

Second mechanism to gain water: Hypoperfusion of the kidneys->juxtaglomerular->_____->angiotensen I->angiotensen II->sodium reabsorption(h20 goes)->DCT->_____ increases

renin, urine

163

Third mechanism to gain water: adrenal cortex (by kidney)->______->DCT->sodium reabsorption->conserves water

aldosterone

164

The first two compartments that effected first are?

plasma and intracellular fluid

165

10kg patient, Venoset 15 gtt/ml
Maintenance: 50ml/kg/24hr
Dehydration Deficit: 10% dehydrated
Apply 80% rule
Contemporary Losses: Vomited 4x 2tsp for 2 days

10kg x 50ml/kg/24 hr = 500ml/24 hrs
10kg x 0.1 x 1000ml = 1000ml x 0.8 (80% rule)= 800ml (1st 24 hours then 200ml the 2nd 24 hours)
Contemporary losses: 4 x (10ml x 2)= 80ml x 2 days= 160ml
500ml + 800ml + 160ml=1460ml
1460ml/24hrs = 60.8 ml/hr
60.8/3600 sec= 0.016ml/sec or 0.02ml/sec
Venoset 15gtt 0.02ml/sec x 15gtt/ml= 0.3 gtt/sec or 1 gtt/3sec

166

Patient weighs 13# is 12% dehydrated, has had diarrhea for 24 hours ½ cup 4 times.
Dr orders maintenance 40ml/kg/24 hrs, use the 80% rule. Venoset is a microdrip (60gtt/ml –need to memorize this) Round to the nearest 10th when appropriate, How many drops/sec round answer to nearest whole gtt.

Dehydration deficit: 5.9kg x .12 x 1000= 708ml x .8 = 566.4ml 1st 24 hrs
Maintenance: 5.9 x 30 = 236ml
Ongoing losses: 4(120 x 2)= 960ml
1762.4 ml/24 hr
73.4ml/hr= 0.02ml/sec x 60 gtt = 1.2gtt/sec or 1 gtt/sec

167

Patient weighs 112# is 8% dehydrated (Do not use 80% rule), Maintenance is 50ml/kg/24 hrs, vomited 3x 2 cups. Venoset is 20gtt/ml.

51 kg x 50=2550
51 x .08 x 1000ml = 4080 ml
3(480ml x 2) = 2880ml
Total 9510ml/24 hrs, 396ml/hr =0.11 ml/sec x 20gtt/ml = 2.2gtt/sec or 2 drops/sec

168

What are examples of colloids?

1) natural blood products
2) synthetic (Tetrastach, Hetastarch, Dextron, Oxyglobin)

169

What are some errors when shaving for a catheter?

clipper burn, not shaving far enough down

170

Half and half is either maintenance or replacement and what tonicity?

maintenance, isotonic

171

LCR is either maintenance or replacement and what tonicity?

replacement, isotonic

172

Maintenance fluids have increased amounts of potassium and decreased ____ to maintain hydration

sodium

173

Normosol R is either maintenance or replacement and what tonicity?

replacement, isotonic

174

Normosol M is either maintenance or replacement and what tonicity?

maintenance, isotonic

175

Crystalloids-> ___molecules->intravascular space within ____ minutes

small, quickly 30

176

Colloids->___ molecules->stay _____->small volume

large, 24-48 hours

177

Tetrastarch can cause what?

hemolysis-ruptured RBCs

178

What fluid type is cow hemoglobin and always causes blood to be hemolyized?

oxyglobin

179

_______ are solutions that are used to maintain hydration and electrolyte levels within the body

maintenance

180

___ are compounds that are able to accept or donate hydrogen ions to prevent changes in pH, like acetate and lactate

buffers