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Flashcards in Small Animal Nursing Deck (537)
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121

What are the two types of fluid?

crystalloids and colloids

122

This type of fluid will stay within the vessels for a short period of time before redistributing throughout the body

crystalloids

123

Which of the following fluids is an example of a colloid:
a. 0.9% NaCl
b. Fresh Frozen Plasma
c. Normosol-R
d. Lactated Ringers Solution

b. Fresh Frozen Plasma

124

Which of the following is not mentioned as a pitfall for increasing IV catheter problems:
a. Taping over blood hair or skin
b. Placing a finger directly over the insertion point
c. Using chlorhexadine instead of betadine scrub
d. Dragging the catheter through hair

c. Using chlorhexadine instead of betadine scrub

125

In normal circumstances, where would you expect to find the highest levels of potassium?

intracellular

126

T/F When giving calcium gluconate it should be administered as a bolus.

false

127

Define and give 2 examples of insensible fluid loses.

feces, respiratory (fluid that cannot be easily quantitatied)

128

What are the two fluid compartments?

extracellular and intracellular

129

Which fluid compartment is larger and what percentage?

intracellular is larger with 40%, extracellular is 20%

130

List 4 of the main electrolytes and what space they are found.

1) sodium-extra
2) potassium-intra
3) chloride-extra
4) phosphorus-intra

131

The electrolyte that greatly influences the movement of water is _____.

sodium

132

An increase in this electrolyte can cause bradycardia and arrhythmias that can lead to cardiac arrest

potassium

133

When the solute concentration of a compartment is higher on one side of the compartment fluid will move in what direction?

fluid will move into the higher concentration to balance out each side

134

What is the first physiological sign that occurs when the body is in need of water?

thirst

135

Fluids that are transcellular, give an example.

synovial fluid

136

What is the term for decrease in potassium?

hypokalemia

137

What hormone initially acts on the distal convoluted tubules causing reabsoprtion of sodium?

aldosterone

138

15% of the body's fluids is interstitial fluid which is what type of fluid?

fluid between the tissues

139

5% of the body's fluids is plasma, give an example.

vascular, proteins

140

The 3 things keep water in or out depends on:

1) the amount of solutes
2) the osmotic pressure
3) oncotic pressure (colloid) based on proteins in fluid

141

What 3 things do electrolytes do?

1) acid-base balance (pH of blood)
2) maintains osmotic pressure
3) regulates movement of water

142

What are the words for sodium imbalance?

hypernetrinia and hyponetrinia

143

What are some clinical signs of hyponetrinia?

1) lethargy
2) weakness
3) depression
4) vomiting

144

NaCl (saline) is normal at _____% and half is _____%

0.9%, 0.45%

145

What is the most common electrolyte imbalance?

hypokalemia

146

What is the most common cause of hypokalemia?

vomiting and diarrhea

147

T/F There is no fluid high enough to replace a potassium deficit, so potassium must be added to a fluid bad.

true

148

What is the most common cause of hyperkalemia?

urinary obstruction

149

What does hyperkalemia lead to?

bradycardia, arrhythmias, and addison's disease

150

Little urine output

oliguria