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Flashcards in Small Animal Nursing Deck (537)
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91

Distribution of water that occurs evenly throughout the interstitial and intravascular spaces

isotonic

92

Most significant intracellular cation

potassium

93

Water loss through urine is termed

sensible

94

Most significant anion extracellulary

chloride

95

Dehydration occurs when fluid losses from the body _____ fluid intake

Exceed

96

How is dehydration categorized?

By type of fluid lost and the effect on the tonicity of the remaining body fluids

97

Clinical signs of dehydration.

skin is doughy, inelastic, eyes sunken in, prolonged crt, dry mm, muscle weakness, weak pulse, decrease urine output, increase in temperature

98

Serial weights can be used to assess hydration status: 1 lb=_____

(1 lb = a pint or 480ml of fluid)

99

Fluid therapy is used in clinical medicine to:

-replace hydration deficits
-maintain normal hydration status
-replace electrolytes
-nutrients
-serve as a vehicle for infusing certain intravenous drugs

100

What are the three fluid types?

Crystalloids, Colloids, Blood Products

101

_____ is necessary for the maintenance of several body functions most notably electrical potential in muscles and _____

potassium, nerves

102

T/F Even small changes in K+ levels can lead to serious side effects involving the nervous and cardiac systems

true

103

____ therapy is used for severe depletions of K+

IV

104

Maximum rate is _____mEq/kg/hr

0.5

105

Why do you never give undiluted K+ directly into the vein?

it can cause cardiac arrest

106

Volume of fluid and amount of electrolytes needed normally in a 24 hour period is _____ml/kg/day

40-60

107

What are the dehydration 3 factors for maintenance?

1) Volume of fluid needed to rehydrate the patient
2) Volume of fluid needed for maintenance requirements
3) Volume of fluid needed to correct ongoing losses

108

What do you monitor during fluid therapy?

-Temperature
-Cardiovascular (pulse, rhythm, rate, strenght, heart rate)
-Respiratory
-Urine output (should be increased)
-Body weight (1 lb=1pt 480mls)
-Peripheral edema
-Mentation (weak, depressed)
-CRT

109

Catheters are removed after ___ hours

72

109

What are some complications of catheters?

-Phlebitis
-Localized inflammation
-Thrombosis
-Blood clot
-Infection

109

Clinical signs of fluid overload

-Serous nasal discharge
-Restlessness
-Coughing
-Hyperpnea

109

What is Acute fluid therapy?

–Hypovolemic patients
–Rapid loss requires rapid replacement

110

Advantages of Lactating ringers:

-It is an effective replacement solution and works quickly to rapidly resuscitate vascular volume and correct dehydration.
-The low amount of potassium makes it an ideal replacement solution because large volumes can be given rapidly without the concern of hyperkalemia (high potassium levels).
-It contains a buffer that helps correct acid-base disturbances and stabilizes blood pH.

111

What is Chronic fluid therapy?

–Dehydrated but not seriously hypovolemic, not dire
–Fluids replaced over 12-24 hours

112

Disadvantages of Lactating ringers:

-Because lactate is metabolized by the liver, lactate solutions should not be given to animals with hepatic compromise.
-Though not designed for this use, LRS is sometimes used as a maintenance solution. This can lead to mild electrolyte disturbances due to its high sodium and chloride levels and low potassium levels. Often, KCL will need to be added if LRS is used as a maintenance solution.
-Because it contains calcium, LRS should not be given with blood products.

113

0.9% NaCl Advantages:

-It is an effective replacement solution and works quickly to rapidly resuscitate vascular volume and correct dehydration.
-It contains no potassium, so it can be given in large volumes and to animals with high potassium concentrations.
-Because it only contains sodium and chloride, it can be given safely with blood products.
-Saline is a great carrier solution because it has few to no incompatibilities with commonly used drugs. It can be used to dilute a drug that needs to be given over a length of time.

114

What is Acute fluid therapy?

–Hypovolemic patients
–Rapid loss requires rapid replacement
-Hemorrhage/blood loss

118

T/F The most common source of contamination for IV is the hands of personnel.

true-wash hands

119

0.9% NaCl disdvantages:

-Saline contains no buffers so it won't help to correct an acid-base problem.
-Is contraindicated with an animal that has heart disease
-Saline contains no potassium, calcium, or magnesium. If being used for a long period of time, electrolyte additives would need to be added to prevent decreased levels of these essential electrolytes.

120

If you see small leaks in the bag of IV fluids, what do you do?

Discard the bag