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Flashcards in Small Animal Nursing Deck (537)
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61

Fluid compartments:
1) Approximately __% of the body weight is fluids
2) __% Intracellular
3) __% Extracellular
4) __% is interstitial
5) Approx __% Plasma
6) <__% Transcellular

1) 60%
2) 40%
3) 20%
4) 15%
5) 5%
6) 1%

62

Osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus detect an increase in ____ concentration. Stimulates thirst and the release of ___ and in turn acts on the kidneys causing the _____ of water.

plasma, ADH, reabsorption

63

Stimulates the release of renin from the juxtaglomerular cells

Renal hypoperfusion

64

Movement from extracellular fluid to intracellular fluid-

Alkalosis (excessive base ions)

65

____ acts on angiotensinogen in the plasma to convert it to angiotensin I which converts to angiotensin II

Renin

66

What is the main intracellular cation? What is the main extraceullar cation?

Potassium, Sodium

67

What is hypokalemia?

abnormal low amount of potassium in the blood

68

Clinical signs of hypokalemia:

-Muscle weakness
-PU & PD
-Lethargy

69

Dehydration Normal Water Output:
1) Sensible losses- ____ losses
2) Insensible-_____ and _____

1) urinary
2) fecal, respiratory

70

Define dehydration.

Net reduction in the free water content of the body

71

_____ is the primary extracellular anion.

Chloride

72

T/F Even with initial rewarming efforts in place, a hypothermic animal's body temperature will often continue to decrease

true

73

Which of the following is not a mentioned clinical sign of hypothermia:
a. Cardiac arrhythmia
b. Tachycardia
c. Weak pulses
d. Dull mentation

b. Tachycardia

74

T/F Thermal injury causes damage to all of the body's organ systems

true

75

Bruising, petichiation, and elevated clotting times can be evidence of damage to which organ system?

hepatic

76

Solutes exert a force on the interior of their respective compartment and helps keep water in the compartments

osmotic pressure

77

Fluid that makes up 40% of the water in the body

intracellular fluid

78

Water moves into the compartment with _____ solute concentration restoring balance

higher

79

Movement of water, low solutes to high concentration

osmosis

80

Hypoperfusion of this organs causes the release of renin which acts on angiotensinogen

renal

81

Pressure exerted by the proteins within the vascular space

oncotic

82

Depletion of this ion leads to lethargy, depression, weakness

sodium

83

Dissolved substances that reside within body fluids

solutes

84

Increase of K+ major side effect

bradycardia

85

Causes cells to shrink because of the movement of water outside of the cell

hypertonic

86

Most abundant ion extracellulary

sodium

87

Most common k+ imbalance

hypokalemia

88

100# 50ml/kg/24 6% dehydrated

maintenance: 40-60 ml/kg/24hr
dehydration deficit: kg x % x 100
replacement/ongoing losses: 2 x estimate in ml
45.5kg x 50ml= 2,272.5mls
45.5kg x 0.06% x 1000= 2,730ml
vomited 3x 1 c(240ml) x 2= 480mls x 3= 1440mls
2,272.5mls + 2,730ml + 1440mls= 6,445mls/24hr
6,445/24=268.5=0.08mls/1sec
venoset 10gtt/ml
0.08ml x 10=0.8gtt
268.5/60= 4.5/60= 0.8ml/1sec
0.8 ml/sec 0.8 x 10= 8gtt/10sec or 0.8 x 5=4gtt/5sec

89

Proteins with high molecular weight are called

colloid

90

Fluid found in the vasculature, interstitial, transcellular

extracellular fluid