Flashcards in Small Animal Nursing Deck (537)
What is not true regarding K+ abnormal serum?
K+ concentrations occur infrequently with patients with fluid disturbances
Hypertonic saline is used when?
rapid expansion is needed
What is not true about Betadine Povide?
What is not a sign of hyperkalemia?
What fluid would you not use to treat shock?
0.45% saline and 2.5% Dextrose (maintenance fluid)
What is a disadvantage of LRS and Normosol R?
it requires a large continuous volume
Hyperkalemia can cause damage to:
A fluid that has a high molecular weight and does not pass across capillary membrane easily
Replacement fluids have ____ potassium and ___ sodium
What are lab tests that monitor fluid therapy?
PCV, TP. chemistry (iof), electrolytes
Why is SQ fluids minimally successful in severely hydrated patients?
poor tissue perfusion
What is the minimum fluid that can be administered per site for SQ, what influences the amount?
50-150ml, elasticity of the skin
What are some questions to ask a client whose animal is having unexplained bleeding?
-history of tick exposure (tick-borne disease)
-one site or multifocal,
-breed (von willebrhans)
-vaccine history (delayed vaccine reaction is thrombocytopenia)
What are some clinical signs of bleeding?
6) mm color
7) CRT (>2)
8) pulse rate (tachycardia), pulse quality (weak)
9) respiration (increased)
What are some lab tests that can determine bleeding?
1) Platelet count
2) Bleeding time
3) Buccal bleeding time
4) Cuticle bleeding time
5) Activated Clotting time
How many platelets are there in order to actively bleed?
<50,000 and under 100,000 is low platelets
What are some clinical indications for a blood transfusion?
1) Severe blood loss
2) Acute hemorrhage
3) Chronic anemia (don't give blood anemia is always a secondary problem, renal disease form no erthyropoeiten)
4) Bleeding disorders
5) Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (hold off on blood transfusion as long as possible since already destroying RBCs might destroy blood)
It takes ____ days for clinical signs to show up because it takes that long for the bone marrow to make RBCs.
T/F Only give one component for a blood transfusion of what that animal needs, no extra.
Indication: acute active hemorrhage, hypovolemic shock, thrombocytopenia or thrombopathia with active bleeding
Fresh whole blood (FWB)
Indication: anemia with hypoproteinemia, hypovolemic shock
Stored whole blood (SWB)
Indication: increase red cell mass in symptomatic ANEMIA, same oxygen-carrying capacity as whole blood but less volume
Packed red blood cells (pRBC)
Indication: increase red cell mass in symptomatic anemia, additive solution extends shelf life of PRBC by improving storage environment, reduces viscosity for infusion
Packed red blood cells, adenine-saline added
Indication: life-threatening bleeding due to thrombocytopenia or thrombopathia
Platelet-rich plasma/platelet concentrate (PRP/PC)
Indication: treatment of coagulation disorders/factor deficiencies; liver disease, DIC; anticoagulant rodenticide toxicity
Fresh frozen plasma (FFP)
Indication: treatment of stable coagulation factor deficiencies
Frozen plasma (FP)
Indication: hemophilia A, Von Willebrand disease, hypofibinogenemia
Whole Blood: can be stored and separated into?
1) packed red blood cells (fresh and stored)
2) fresh plasma
3) stored plasma
4) cryoprecipitate platelet-rich plasma
Fresh whole blood: how long does it stay fresh, what does it contain, used for?
- < 8 hours then it becomes stored
-RBCs, WBCs (do not give blood to give WBC), Platelets, Plasma, Coagulation factors
-Thrombocytopenia, DIC, Massive hemorrhage