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Flashcards in Small Animal Nursing Deck (537)
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479

What is not true regarding K+ abnormal serum?

K+ concentrations occur infrequently with patients with fluid disturbances

480

Hypertonic saline is used when?

rapid expansion is needed

481

What is not true about Betadine Povide?

residual effect

482

What is not a sign of hyperkalemia?

increase RR

483

What fluid would you not use to treat shock?

0.45% saline and 2.5% Dextrose (maintenance fluid)

484

What is a disadvantage of LRS and Normosol R?

it requires a large continuous volume

485

Hyperkalemia can cause damage to:

the heart

486

A fluid that has a high molecular weight and does not pass across capillary membrane easily

Dextran

487

Replacement fluids have ____ potassium and ___ sodium

low, high

488

What are lab tests that monitor fluid therapy?

PCV, TP. chemistry (iof), electrolytes

489

Why is SQ fluids minimally successful in severely hydrated patients?

poor tissue perfusion

490

What is the minimum fluid that can be administered per site for SQ, what influences the amount?

50-150ml, elasticity of the skin

491

What are some questions to ask a client whose animal is having unexplained bleeding?

-history of tick exposure (tick-borne disease)
-one site or multifocal,
-environment history
-breed (von willebrhans)
-vaccine history (delayed vaccine reaction is thrombocytopenia)

492

What are some clinical signs of bleeding?

1) epistaxis
2) bruising
3) petechiation
4) ecchymoses
5) hematuria
6) mm color
7) CRT (>2)
8) pulse rate (tachycardia), pulse quality (weak)
9) respiration (increased)

493

What are some lab tests that can determine bleeding?

1) Platelet count
2) Bleeding time
3) Buccal bleeding time
4) Cuticle bleeding time
5) Activated Clotting time

494

How many platelets are there in order to actively bleed?

<50,000 and under 100,000 is low platelets

495

What are some clinical indications for a blood transfusion?

1) Severe blood loss
2) Acute hemorrhage
3) Chronic anemia (don't give blood anemia is always a secondary problem, renal disease form no erthyropoeiten)
4) Bleeding disorders
5) Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (hold off on blood transfusion as long as possible since already destroying RBCs might destroy blood)

496

It takes ____ days for clinical signs to show up because it takes that long for the bone marrow to make RBCs.

3-5days

497

T/F Only give one component for a blood transfusion of what that animal needs, no extra.

true

498

Indication: acute active hemorrhage, hypovolemic shock, thrombocytopenia or thrombopathia with active bleeding

Fresh whole blood (FWB)

499

Indication: anemia with hypoproteinemia, hypovolemic shock

Stored whole blood (SWB)

500

Indication: increase red cell mass in symptomatic ANEMIA, same oxygen-carrying capacity as whole blood but less volume

Packed red blood cells (pRBC)

501

Indication: increase red cell mass in symptomatic anemia, additive solution extends shelf life of PRBC by improving storage environment, reduces viscosity for infusion

Packed red blood cells, adenine-saline added

502

Indication: life-threatening bleeding due to thrombocytopenia or thrombopathia

Platelet-rich plasma/platelet concentrate (PRP/PC)

503

Indication: treatment of coagulation disorders/factor deficiencies; liver disease, DIC; anticoagulant rodenticide toxicity

Fresh frozen plasma (FFP)

504

Indication: treatment of stable coagulation factor deficiencies

Frozen plasma (FP)

505

Indication: hemophilia A, Von Willebrand disease, hypofibinogenemia

Cryoprecipitate (CRYO)

506

Whole Blood: can be stored and separated into?

1) packed red blood cells (fresh and stored)
2) fresh plasma
3) stored plasma
4) cryoprecipitate platelet-rich plasma

507

Fresh whole blood: how long does it stay fresh, what does it contain, used for?

- < 8 hours then it becomes stored
-RBCs, WBCs (do not give blood to give WBC), Platelets, Plasma, Coagulation factors
-Thrombocytopenia, DIC, Massive hemorrhage

508

Stored whole blood: how long until it is stored blood, what does it provide, what does it restore?

-greater than 8 hours refrigerated (dependent on anticoagulant used)
-RBCs and plasma proteins
-blood volume and oxygen carrying capacity
(no longer considered a treatment of choice)