Flashcards in Small Animal Medicine Deck (309)
What is the main reason for a Pre-GA Exam?
Determine the ability of the CV and Respiratory system to maintain O2 delivery and waste removal
T/F Smaller dogs and youngsters should decrease fasting time due to decreased glycogen stores & higher metabolic rates.
What are the parts of a signalment?
6) Reproductive status
Normal temperature for dog and cat.
______ can cause abortions
6 divisions of anesthetic risks- ASA classification of Patient Risk:
1) Class I-
2) Class II-
3) Class III-
4) Class IV-
5) Class V-
6) Class VI-
1) minimal risk, healthy animal with no underlying dz
2) slight risk (neonate or geriatric) mild systemic disease
3) moderate risk, moderate systemic disease and mild clinical signs
4) high risk, pre-existing systemic dz of severe nature
5) extreme risk, patient not expected to survive
6) patient will not recover
Atropine and Glycopyrrolate are what type of preanesthetics?
Name 2 tranquilizers/sedatives.
3) Alpha-2 agonists
How do anticholinergics work?
Block acetylcholine (vagus nerve) from parasympathetic on the muscarinic receptors
What's the difference between Benzodiazepines and Alpha-2 agonists?
Alpha-2 agonists can be reversed and give analgesia
What are 2 parts of the minimum database?
1) Patient history
2) Nature of procedure
3) Complete physical examination
4) Diagnostic tests
5) In consult with DVM, patient status and anesthetic risk
What are the three basic action of the anesthesia machine?
1) Deliver O2
2) Safe anesthesia concentration
3) Remove CO2
What are the basic components?
1) Compressed gas source
2) Anesthetic machine
3) Breathing circuit
What does the pressure gauge do?
Indicates the pressure of the gas remaining within the cylinder
What does the flow meter do?
1) Controls rate at which specific gas is delivered
2) Further reduces pressure to 15 psi
What is a Rotameter?
Ball or bobbin rising within graduated glass tube to height proportional to flow of gas in tube
The Oxygen Flush valve bypasses the _____ and is direct to common gas outlet or anesthetic circle
What does the O2 flush valve do?
Dilutes anesthetic gas in system
What does the vaporizer do?
Volatilizes liquids & inhaled anesthetics & delivers clinically useful concentrations of anesthetic vapor
If someone is color blind, how will they know where the oxygen tank and the nitrogen tank goes?
the Pin-index cylinders, for those connecting to the machine directly it has different positions for different gases
When should an O2 flush valve not be used?
1) should NEVER be used in closed breathing system without an open expiratory valve
2) should NEVER be used in a nonrebreather
3) should NEVER be used while the patient is connected
What's the difference between the rebreather vs the nonrebreather?
Rebreather: Eliminate CO2 by chemical removal and allows same gas to be rebreathed by patient
Nonrebreather: Eliminates CO2 by flushing of waste or exhaust system
What transfers gas from machine to patient
Used to increase visibility of larynx
State of controlled and reversible unconsciousness achieved through the use of injectable and/ or inhaled drugs and characterized by the absence of pain perception, memory, motor response to stimuli or reflex responses
What are the two routes of anesthesia?
injectable and inhalant
Advantages and disadvantages of inhalation anesthesia.
1) Advantages: Depth of anesthesia can be readily altered, Elimination occurs mainly through the lungs, Allows the constant delivery of 100% O2
2) Disadvantages: Requires an anesthetic machine, Induction is slow when used alone
What are the uses for an ET tube?
-Efficient delivery of gas
-Correct size improves efficiency by reducing anatomic dead space (portions of breathing passages containing air but no gas exchange)
-Inflated cuff decreases risk
ET placement Disadvantages:
-Increased vagal tone
-Using human tubes= can be too long which increases anatomic dead space