Slide Set 6: Blood and Respiratory System Flashcards Preview

*Mammalian Physiology > Slide Set 6: Blood and Respiratory System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Slide Set 6: Blood and Respiratory System Deck (272)
Loading flashcards...
1

Blood makes up ____ of the ECF

1/4

2

Blood is intra/extracellular

extracellular

3

How much of of the plasma is water and proteins?

92% water
7% proteins

4

Plasma is identical in composition to _____

interstitial fluid

5

Plasma is identical in composition to interstitial fluid except for the presence of _____

plasma proteins

6

What is/are the most prevalent type of protein in plasma?

Albumin

7

What is the percentage of albumins compared to other plasma proteins?

60%

8

Give examples of plasma proteins

albumin
globulin
fibrinogen
transferrin

9

Where are the plasma proteins made?

in the liver then secreted into the blood

10

Which plasma protein that is not synthesized in the liver?

Type of globulins called immunoglobulins or antibodies

11

Where are immunoglobulins/antibodies synthesized?

synthesized and secreted by specialized blood cells rather than by the liver.

12

Compare the osmotic pressure of the blood plasma and the interstitial fluid

the presence of proteins in the plasma makes the osmotic pressure of the blood higher than that of the interstitial fluid.

This osmotic gradient tends to pull water from the interstitial fluid into the capillaries and off set filltration out of the capillaries created by blood pressure

13

What are the functions of plasma proteins?

- blood clotting
- defense against foreign invaders
- carriers for steroid hormones, cholesterol, drugs, and certain ions such as iron (Fe2 + ).
- hormones
- extracellular enzymes

14

What is the function of albumins?

Major contributors to colloid osmotic pressure of plasma; carriers for various substances

15

What is the function of globulins?

Clotting factors, enzymes, antibodies, carriers for various substances

16

What is the function of fibrinogen?

Forms fibrin threads essential to blood clotting

17

What is the function of transferrin?

Iron transport

18

The main 3 cellular elements found in blood

RBC (erythrocytes)
WBC (leukocytes)
Platelets (thrombocytes)

19

True/False

White blood cells are the only fully functional cells in the circulation

true

Red blood cells have lost their nuclei by the time they enter the blood- stream, and platelets, which also lack a nucleus, are cell fragments that have split off a relatively large parent cell known as a mega- karyocyte {mega, extremely large + karyon, kernel + -cyte, cell}.

20

Which blood cells don't have a nucleus?

RBC --> lose their nuclei by the time they enter the bloodstream
Platelets

21

Where do platelets split off?

megakaryocytes

22

What is the function of RBC?

Red blood cells play a key role in transporting oxygen from lungs to tissues, and carbon dioxide from tissues to lungs.

23

What is the function of platelets?

Platelets are instrumental in coagulation, the process by which blood clots prevent blood loss in damaged vessels.

24

What is the function of WBC?

White blood cells play a key role in the body’s immune responses, defending the body against foreign invaders, such as parasites, bacteria, and viruses.

Although most white blood cells circulate through the body in the blood, their work is usually carried out in the tissues rather than in the circulatory system.

25

Blood contains five types of mature white blood cells:

(1) lymphocytes
(2) monocytes
(3) neutrophils
(4) eosinophils
(5) basophils.

26

Monocytes that leave the circulation and enter the tissues develop into ________

macrophages

27

Tissue basophils are called _____

mast cells

28

Which WBCs are phagocytic?

neutrophils
monocytes
macrophages

29

What is a phagocyte?

they can engulf and ingest foreign particles such as bacteria (phagocytosis)

30

What are lymphocytes?

they are responsible for specific immune responses directed against invaders.