Slide Set 10: Tissue, Bone Growth and Calcium Balance Flashcards Preview

*Mammalian Physiology > Slide Set 10: Tissue, Bone Growth and Calcium Balance > Flashcards

Flashcards in Slide Set 10: Tissue, Bone Growth and Calcium Balance Deck (152)
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1

What kind of tissue is bone?

connective tissue

2

Bone consists of

cells, fibers and extracellular matrix mater

3

Extracellular components of bone are

hard and calcified

4

What is the ratio of ECM and bone cells?

ECM is more abundant than cells and contains lots of collagen

5

ECM of bones are high in

collagen

6

What is the function of bones?

•Support—bones form the framework-shape, alignment, and positioning

•Protection—protect the structures they enclose

•Movement—bones with joints function as levers that move

•Mineral storage reservoir for calcium, phosphorus,

•Hematopoiesis—blood cell formation

7

______ and ______ of bone allows it to serve its supportive and protective functions

Rigidity
strength

8

What are the types of bones?

A. Long bones
B. Short bones
C. Irregular bones
D. Flat bone

9

Compact bone is

dense and used for support

10

Spongy bone (cancellous) or trabecular bone forms

a calcified lattice

11

_____ is the end of a long bone.

Epiphysis

12

_______ is the site of bone growth

Epiphyseal plate

13

____ is the shaft of along bone.

Diaphysis

14

Diaphysis

• Main shaft of long bone
• Hollow, cylindrical shape and thick, compact bone
• Function is to provide strong support without cumbersome weigh

15

Epiphysis

• Both ends of a long bone, made of cancellous bone filled with marrow
• Bulbous shape
• Function is to provide attachments for muscles and give stability to joint

16

Articular cartilage

• Layer of hyaline cartilage that covers the articular surface of epiphyses

17

Hyaline cartilage

Elastic cartilage,
Function is to cushion jolts and blows

18

Periosteum

•Dense, white, fibrous membrane that covers bone
•Attaches tendons firmly to bones
•Contains cells that form and destroy bone
•Contains blood vessels important in growth and repair
•Contains blood vessels that send branches into bone
•Essential for bone cell survival and bone formation

19

What does periosteum contain?

• Contains cells that form and destroy bone
• Contains blood vessels important in growth and repair
• Contains blood vessels that send branches into bone

20

Endosteum

thin epithelial membrane that lines medullary cavity

21

Medullary (or marrow) cavity

•Tubelike, hollow space in diaphysis
•Filled with yellow marrow in adult

22

What are the layers of bones from superficial to deep?

Periosteum
Endosteum
Medullary (or marrow) cavity

23

Short, flat, and irregular bone features

 Inner portion is cancellous bone, covered on the outside with compact bone
 Spaces inside cancellous bone of a few irregular and flat bones are filled with red marrow
 Large amounts of red bone marrow are found in flat bones like those of the ribs, pelvis and skull

24

Large amounts of red bone marrow are found in _____ like those of the ribs, pelvis and skull

flat bones

25

The Extracellular Matrix of Bone is made up of ________ and ______

an Organic and an Inorganic component

26

Inorganic salts

–The hardness of bone results from the deposition of
-->Hydroxyapatite—highly specialized chemical crystals of calcium and phosphate
–Found in the spaces between the collagen
–Also about 10% calcium carbonate
–Slender, needle-like crystals are oriented to most effectively resist stress and mechanical deformation–Magnesium and sodium are also found in bone

27

Hydroxyapatite

highly specialized chemical crystals of calcium and phosphate

28

Inorganic salts are found in

the spaces between the collagen

29

Organic matrix

secreted by bone cells (osteoblasts, derived from mesenchymal stem cells). They become imprisoned in the matrix
• Collagenous fibers and a mixture of protein and polysaccharides which forms a gelatinous material termed ground substance
• Ground substance is also important in bone growth, repair and remodelling as it acts as a medium for the diffusion of nutrients, oxygen and metabolic waste. This organic matrix combines with large amounts of crystallized minerals. Mostly calcium to give bone its rigidity

30

Collagenous fibers

Collagenous fibers and a mixture of protein and polysaccharides which forms a gelatinous material termed ground substance