Flashcards in Sleep Walking Deck (20)
What is sleep walking?
Refers to the activities occurring unconsciously when someone is asleep that normally occur when awake
What is sleep walking also known as?
When in someone's life is sleep walking more prevalent?
At which stage during sleep does sleep walking usually occur at?
During stage 3 or 4 early in the night
What happens if sleep walking occurs during REM sleep?
It is classed as REM behaviour disorder
Name 6 possible environmental causes of sleep walking
2) Alcohol intoxication
3) Sleep deprivation
4) Chaotic sleep schedules
Name 4 possible medical conditions which may cause sleep walking
2) Night-time asthma
3) Night-time seizures
4) Sleep apnoea
Name 3 psychiatric disorders which may cause sleep walking
1) Multiple personality disorder
2) Panic attacks
3) Stress disorders
Outline Plazzi (2005)
Sleep deprivation, alcohol, fever, stress and psychiatric changes are risk factors
What does the fact that risk factors trigger sleep walking in only some individuals mean?
It suggests that there is some inherited vulnerability
What are the 2 possible explanations as to why sleep walking is more common in children?
1) They have more SWS than adults
2) Oliviero (2008) - suggested the system which inhibits motor activity in SWS not sufficiently developed in some children so then examined motor excitability of adult sleepwalkers during wakefulness and compared to controls, signs of immaturity in relevant neural circuits
Name 4 research studies associated with sleepwalking
1) Broughton (1968)
2) Lecendreux (2003)
3) Zadra (2008)
4) Bassetti 2002)
Outline Broughton (1968)
Found prevalence in first-degree relatives (parents, children, siblings) of an affected subject is at least ten times greater than in general population
Outline Lecendreux (2003)
Report about 50% concordance in identical (MZ) twins compared to 10-15% in DZ twins, and identified gene that may be critical in sleepwalking
Explain the diathesis-stress model for sleepwalking
Proposes that genes merely provide vulnerability (or diathesis) for disorder, but disorder will only occur in situations of environmental stress
What study provides support for the diathesis-stress model for sleepwalking?
Outline Zadra (2008)
Found link between sleep deprivation and sleepwalking - ppts in sleep lab and their patterns monitored and made to be awake during the entire evening and the next morning they were allowed 'recovery' sleep (had been awake for 25 hours) and they videoed them. Results showed 50% ppts had 32 sleepwalking episodes whilst in 'recovery' sleep, 90% demonstrated 92 episodes in the second night so concluded sleep deprivation increases sleepwalking - sleep deprivation does not lead to sleepwalking in normal people so acts as a 'stressor' in those who have vulnerability
Outline Bassetti (2002)
Gene-tested 16 adult sleepwalkers and found 50% had specific gene compared to 24% non-sleepwalkers - produced proteins called HLA that regulate immune system - same genetic variant HLA gene associated with narcolepsy
Name and explain 2 negative points about Bassetti (2002)
2) Unrepresentative sample of sleepwalkers - most do not seek help, are aware or doesn't cause them too many problems