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Pathology > Skin > Flashcards

Flashcards in Skin Deck (16)
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1

Functions of the skin

protective barrier against environmental insults
temp and water loss regulation
sensation
Vit D synthesis
appearance

2

Structure of normal skin

epidermis
dermis
subcutaneous tissue

3

Flat skin terminology

macule: flat area of altered colour <0.5cm
patch: flat area of altered colour and texture >0.5cm

4

Raised skin terminology

papule: solid raised lesion <0.5cm
nodule: solid raised lesion >0.5cm (deeper)
plaque: palpable scaling raised lesion >0.5cm

5

Blistered skin terminology

vesicle: raised, clear fluid filled lesion <0.5cm
bulla: raised, clear, fluid filled lesion >0.5cm

6

Fibro epithelial polyps

benign lesion
"skin tags"
middle aged/older people more common
neck, face, trunk, axilla and groin
flesh coloured, bag like lesion
histology: fibrous core, epidermis on a stalk

7

Naevi

benign lesion
"moles"
proliferation of benign melanocytes (pigment-producing cell)
> dermo-epidermal junction (junctional- just in epidermis)
> dermo epidermal junction and dermis (compound - epidermis and dermis)
> just in dermis (intradermal)

8

Sebaceous cysts

benign lesion
2 types
> epidermoid (granular layer)
> pilar (no granular layer)
lined with stratified squamous epithelium

9

Seborrhoeic keratosis

benign lesion
middle aged/older people
arise spontaneously
trunk, head and neck

10

Haemangioma

benign lesion
vascular tumour of the dermis
tends to occur in children
blue/red surface

11

Basal cell carcinoma
Squamous cell carcinoma

Malignant lesion
most common human cancer
slow growing, rarely metastasise
occur at skin exposure sites'

Bowen's disease = precursor to SCC, due to sun damage

12

Melanoma

malignant lesion
arises in sun damaged skin
can be very aggressive and spread widely
used to be universally fatal, but early diagnosis = removal
5 things to look out for:
asymmetry
border - ? irregular
colour - ? variable pigmentation in lesion
diameter - mostly >6mm
enlarged ?

13

Rashes

inflammatory skin reactions
eg. eczema - itching, burning, blisters

14

Psoriasis

commonly affects elbows, knees, scalps, lumbosacral area, glens penis
associated with nail changes, arthritis, myopathy (disease of muscle), enteropathy (disease of intestines)and spondylic joint disease
salmon pink plaques with silver scaling

15

Scabies

caused by human scabies mites = itchy
spread by direct skin to skin contact with someone who has it
burrows appear as small grey lines on skin

16

Meningitis

unwell (headache, stiff neck, dislike to bright lights)
can deteriorate rapidly (aching limbs, cold hands and feet)
majority develop a rash of tiny 'pin prick' spots developing into purple bruising
non-blanching rash!!