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Flashcards in Shock PP 1-19 Deck (58)
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1

Imbalance between oxygen supply and oxygen requirements at the cellular level

Shock

2

Common factor among all types of shock is ______
and impaired cellular oxygen utilization

hypo perfusion

3

Inadequate cellular oxygenation may result from (3):

Decreased cardiac output
Maldistribution of blood flow
Reduced blood oxygen content

4

Cardiogenic causes of shock: inadequate _______despite sufficient vascular volume

cardiac output

5

Obstructive causes of shock: circulatory blockage, such as a large _______ or ________, disrupts cardiac output

pulmonary embolus; cardiac tamponade

6

Hypovolemic causes of shock: loss of blood volume as a result of ______ or excessive loss of extracellular fluids

hemorrhage

7

Distributive causes of shock: greatly expanded _____space because of inappropriate _______

vascular; vasodilation

8

MI and cardiomyopathy examples of ______ shock

cardiogenic

9

Valvular heart disease and ventricular rupture examples of _______ shock

cardiogenic

10

Congenital heart defects and papillary muscle rupture examples of _______ shock

cardiogenic

11

Pulmonary embolism and cardiac tamponade examples of _______ shock

obstructive

12

Dissecting aortic aneurysm and tension pneumothorax examples of _______shock

obstructive

13

Acute hemorrhage and dehydration from vomiting examples of ________ shock

hypovolemic

14

Overuse of diuretics, burns, pancreatitis signs of _____ shock

hypovolemic

15

Anaphylaxis, neurotrauma signs of ________ shock

distributive

16

Spinal cord trauma, spinal anesthesia, sepsis signs of ______ shock

distributive

17

Disrupts function and, if ongoing or severe, may lead to cell death, organ dysfunction, and stimulation of inflammatory reactions

Impaired oxygen utilization by cells

18

Lack of oxygen causes production of _____ and
Failure of ion pumps leads to _____ and ______accumulation in the cell (hydropic swelling)

lactate; sodium and water

19

Lack of oxygen causes formation of oxygen ____ and
and induction of inflammatory _______

radicals; cytokines

20

Impaired tissue oxygenation results in cellular hypoxia, which causes (3)_______

Anaerobic metabolism
Free radical production
Macrophage induction

21

In _______ injury, ischemic cells may produce oxygen-free radicals when oxygen supplies are restored

reperfusion

22

_______ and ______ cytokines increase in ____ shock and are thought to be important mediators of vascular failure and progressive organ damage

TNF-a and IL-1; septic

23

TNF-a and IL-1 cytokines increase activity of inducible ______ synthase leading to excess NO

nitric oxide

24

Failure of microcirculation to autoregulate blood flow leads to activation of ______, leading to _____ debt in tissues

coagulation; oxygen

25

What are the 3 clinical stages of shock?

compensated shock, progressive shock, and refractory shock

26

Homeostatic mechanisms are sufficient to maintain adequate tissue perfusion despite a reduction in CO

Compensatory stage

27

_____ activation attempts to maintain blood pressure even though CO has fallen, leading to increased ____ and _____ resistance

SNS; CO and vascular

28

Progressive stage of shock is marked by ______ and marked tissue ______

hypotension; hypoxia

29

In the ______ stage, lactate production increases with ______ metabolism

progressive; anaerobic

30

In the ______ stage, lack of _____ leads to cellular swelling, dysfunction, and death

progressive; ATP