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A Level Physics - LVI B > SHM revision > Flashcards

Flashcards in SHM revision Deck (38)
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1

What is the period of oscillation?

The time for one complete cycle of oscillation.

2

If a trolley is at equilibrium attached to two springs, when pushed in one direction, what will the trolley do and why?

It will accelerate toward the equilibrium point.
The extended spring provides a restoring force.

3

What is natural frequency?

The frequency of free oscillations of an oscillating system.

4

What are forced vibrations?

Making an object oscillate at a frequency that is not it’s natural frequency

5

When does resonance occur?

When the driving force or oscillation matches the natural frequency of the system.

6

What is the outcome of resonance?

An increase in amplitude of the system’s oscillation.

7

What is damping?

The term used to describe the removal of energy from an oscillating system.

8

What are the four levels of damping?

Light
Heavy
Critical
over damped

9

Describe light damping of a system

The system oscillates over a long time frame before coming to rest.
The amplitude of the oscillations follow an exponential decay envelope.

10

Describe over damped

The oscillating system returns to zero over an extended time frame.
(No discernible oscillation)

11

Describe critical damping

The oscillating system returns to the zero position of the oscillation after one quarter of a time period.
Does not affect frequency.

12

Define a free oscillator

Oscillations where there is no periodic force acting on the system

13

Define a forced oscillator

A system is forced to oscillate by an external periodic force

14

For an object undergoing SHM where does it have the greatest velocity?

At the equilibrium position

15

For an object undergoing SHM where does it have zero velocity?

At the amplitudes

16

For an object undergoing SHM where does it have the greatest acceleration?

At the amplitudes

17

For an object undergoing SHM where does it have the least acceleration?

At the equilibrium point

18

State the two conditions required for SHM

1. Acceleration always directed towards the equilibrium position
2. The acceleration is proportional to the displacement of the object from the equilibrium position

19

What is the relationship between displacement and frequency for a shm oscillator?

They are independent.
As displacement increases the accelerations increases. this increases the average velocity which cancels out the additional distance the oscillator needs to travel

20

What is the relationship between mass and frequency for a shm oscillator?

As mass increases the accelerations decreases (F=ma)
the lower acceleration causes a lower average velocity. This means time period will increase and from f = 1/T then frequency will decrease

21

What is the relationship between spring constant and frequency for a shm oscillator?

As spring constant increases the resting force increases (F=ke). This causes a larger acceleration (F = ma) which means the average velocity will be greater. The will reduced the time period and increase the frequency (f = 1/T)

22

Describe the displacement against time graph for an oscillator starting at the right hand side amplitude

Sin (x)

23

Describe the velocity against time graph for an oscillator starting at the right hand side amplitude

cos (x)

24

Describe the acceleration against time graph for an oscillator starting at the right hand side amplitude

-sin (X)

25

What function should your calculator be in when using the displacement equation

Radians

26

Describe the acceleration against displacement graph for a SHM oscillator

A straight line through the origin with a negative gradient

27

Describe the velocity against displacement graph for a SHM oscillator

A circle with the origin as the mid point

28

Describe the kinetic energy against displacement graph for a SHM oscillator

a n shape

29

Describe the potential energy against displacement graph for a SHM oscillator

a u shape

30

For a mass spring system plan a practical to prove the relationship between time period and mass

Vary the mass 8 times.
Measure the time period
Keep spring constant a control variable
make the experiment more accurate by repeat reading, timing for 10 oscillations
Reduce parallax errors by keeping your eye level with the start and end of an oscillation
Plot a graph of Tsquared against m.
Relationship is proven if the graph is a straight line through the origin.