Flashcards in Sexual ethics Deck (58)
Give two quotes from Genesis 19
- "I have two daughters who are still virgins. Let me bring them out to you and you can do whatever you want with them"
-"There are no men... Let's make our father drunk so that we can... have children by him"
What is a civil partnership?
A legally recognised union between two people of the same sex
Give a quote from Leviticus 20:13
You shall not lie with a man as with a woman... those that do shall be put to death
What is significant about the law and homosexuality in the years 1275, 1885, 1967 and 1994?
1275 - First age of consent was set at the age of 12
1885 - Criminal Law Amendment Act raised consent to 16
1967 - Homosexuality was legalised for ages 21+
1994 - Homosexual sex was legalised for ages 18+ and currently stands same as heterosexual relationships
What is the law on homosexuality in Iran?
Punishable by death
What is the view of Liberal Protestants?
The Bible reflects Judaism at the time and not God's teachings, therefore they promote equality for faithful homosexuals
What is the approach of natural law to homosexuality?
- Right and wrong is fixed, homosexuality is wrong
- Gay sex is an apparent not real good as it breaks primary precepts because life cannot come from it
x conflicting precepts e.g. homosexual adoption
x Aquinas says homosexuality is unnatural - false
x Sex doesn't always have to be for reproductive purposes
What is the Kantian approach to homosexuality?
- People cannot be treated as a means
- Actions must be universalised but universalising reproduction as a requirement of sex would make homosexuality unethical
- Kant: homosexuality is wrong and degrades people lower than animals
Evaluate Kant's approach to homosexuality
- Kant rejects surrogacy and adoption as a resolve because it is not universal
- Kant's views may be different now same sex marriage is allowed
- Acceptable if people are not treated as a means
Describe the view of Arthur Schopenhaur in response to Kant's view of homosexuality
A means of preventing greater evils e.g. unwanted children
Describe the approach of situation ethics to homosexuality
If a same-sex couple can find a meaningful relationship that would justify breaking traditional norms (pragmatic approach)
Describe a utilitarian approach to homosexuality
- Hedonic calculus legitimises homosexuality to maximise pleasure
- In situations where the majority view it a sin then it should be prohibited
Evaluate the utilitarian approach to homosexuality
- Centralises happiness
- Short term happiness is not worth long term misery
- Calculations cannot consider emotional attachments
What do J.S.Mill and P.Singer believe in regards to homosexuality?
JSM - it should be allowed to prevent mass prejudice and restriction of rights
PS - countries should not outlaw a morally neutral activity
What is the natural law approach to extra-marital sex?
- Adultery is wrong and doesn't support the precepts
- Apparent not a real good
- Excludes possibility of morality e.g. resolve infertility
Describe the Kantian approach to extra-marital sex
- Increases individual freedom and requirement to take moral duty for others
- Adultery is not universal as meaningless sex desecrates sanctity of marriage
Evaluate the Kantian approach to extra-marital sex
- Sex is not the only reason to get married
- Makes women vulnerable to abuse
Describe the situation ethics approach to extra-marital sex
- Interests of an individual may permit breaking moral rules
- Not committing adultery to follow laws doesn't create a happy marriage
- E.g. a married women PoW asks a guard to impregnate her so she can be set free
Evaluate the Situation ethics approach to extra-marital sex
- Can be loving
- Cannot be used as a basis of theory
- Risks the happiness of children
Describe the utilitarian approach to extra-marital sex
Hedonistic pleasure rather than a wider sense of well-being could legitimise a free, unregulated approach to sexual behaviour to maximise pleasure
Evaluate the utilitarian view towards extra-marital sex
- Rule utilitarians: adultery is wrong
- Can lead to great unhappiness e.g. STIs and unwanted pregnancies
- Cheating causes unhappiness to loyal partner
Why do some Protestant Churches allow cohabitation before marriage?
CofE allows couples committed to marriage to cohabit as a trial marriage
Give a quote from the Quakers regarding pre-marital sex
"A couple can be faithful to each other in a loving, non-exploitative relationships outside of marriage"
Give a quote from Jesus in Matthew 5:27-28
"I tell you, anyone who looks at a woman lustfully has already committed adultery with her in his heart"
Describe the views of Adolf Garunbaum
Christian sexual ethics is based on narrow minded views from old men who claim it is what God wants and Christianity should modernise
What type of ethical system prohibits homosexual sex?
Theocentric (Having God at the core)
Apply the ethics of natural law to pre-marital sex
- Does not support Aquinas' precepts and is not sustainable within a society
- Apparent not real good
Evaluate the natural law approach to pre-marital sex
- Sex is what makes marriage sacred
- Sex is not an expression of love but a procreative function
Apply and evaluate the approach of situation ethics to pre-marital sex
- Free choice by love
- Permissible if protected
- Doesn't support accidental pregnancy