Session 6- Quality Management Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Session 6- Quality Management Deck (25)
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1

Top Quality Management

managing entire organisation so it excels in all dimensions of P&S important to the customer

2

Total Quality Management
Goals

a) careful design P&S
b) ensure that organisations system can consistently produce the design
But entire organisation has to be oriented towards goal

3

Fundamental for any Quality program

determination of quality specifications
costs of achieving (not achieving) those specification

4

Quality Specifications

they derive from decisions/actions made relative to the quality of its design
relative to quality of its accordance to that design

5

A. Types of Quality
1. DESIGN QUALITY

inherent value of the product in the Market Place
firm designs P&S with certain performance charact./ features based on what an intended market expects
Thus strategic decision for firm - since manuf. process attributes can greatly impact the reliability &durability of P.

6

Design Quality Dimensions

features of the P&S that relate directly to design issues:
- Performance (primary chart.)
- Features (secondary)
- Reliability/Durability (consistency of performance, useful life; very important to LR success of the P&S)
- Serviceability (ease of repair)
- Aesthetics (sensory charact.)
- Perceived quality (past perf./Reputation - brand)

7

A. Types of Quality
2. CONFORMANCE QUALITY

degree to which P&S design specifications are met
--> tactical, day-to-day nature activities

8

A. Types of Quality
3. QUALITY OF THE SOURCE

philosophy of making workers personally responsible for the quality of their output
expectation to take responsibility for making sure that output meets specification

9

B1.Cost of Quality

expenditures related to achieving P&S quality
--> costs of prevention, appraisal, in/external failure
--> 15-20% of sales

10

Basic Assumption to Analyse Cost of Quality

a) failure occur
b) prevention is cheap
c) performance can be measured

11

B2.Cost of Quality Classification
INTERNAL FAILURE COST

cost associated with defects found before the customer receives the P&S
E.X: Waste, Scarp, Rework/ Rectification, Failure Analysis

12

C. Six Sigma
1. Quality

statistical term to describe quality goal of no more than 3.4 defects out of every 1 mill. units
also refers to quality improvement philosophy & program

13

C. Six Sigma
2. Process

defect = any component that doesn´t fall within C. specification limits
Each step/activity represents opp. for defect to occur
SS program seeks to reduce variation within the processes that lead to these defects

14

C. Six Sigma
3. Valuation

sees variation as its enemy of quality (deal with this problem)
BUT allows managers to readily describe the performance of a process in terms of its variability
compare to different processes using a common metric

15

DMAIC cycle for Six Sigma
"Dumb Managers always ignore customers"
5-Step- Model

Define
--> identify C. priorities and linked to business objectives
--> Critical-to-Q- characteristics
Measure
--> how to measure the process; performing
Analyse
--> determine most likely causes of defects
Improve
--> means to remove the causes of defects
--> max. acceptance ranges of key variables & system for measuring deviations of var.
Control
--> how to maintain improvements?
put tools into place to ensue that key var. remain within maximum acceptance ranges under modified process

16

Loss Aversion

trying to protect yourself from loosing money

17

B2.Cost of Quality Classification
EXTERNAL COSTS

cost associated with defects found after the customer receives the product
E.x: Repairs, Servicing, Complaints, Warranty Claims

18

B2.Cost of Quality Classification
APPRAISAL COST

cost incurred to determine the degree of conformance to quality requirements
E.X: Verification, Quality Audits, Supplier Ratings

19

B2.Cost of Quality Classification
PREVENTION COST

cost incurred to keep failure and appraisal cost to a minimum
design/implementation / maintenance of QMS
E.X: Quality Planning &Assurance

20

Cost of Quality
Methodology

allows an organisation to determine the extent its resources are used for activities:
that prevent poor quality
that appraise the Quality of P&S of its organisation
that result from in/external failure
Having such info. -> allows an organisation to determine potential savings to be gained by implementing process improvements

21

What is Quality?

Value Perceived/Price Paid

22

Quality Service
The GAP MODEL
--> tool to close important gab between expected and perceived service

a) Provider:
- Managerial Perception
- Specification
- Delivered Service
b) Customer
- perceived Service (what do they communicate to C.)
- expected Service (previous experience & wom)

23

Quality Process

1. Quality Planning (Preliminary scoping document, project plan)
2. Quality Assurance (Execution)
3. Quality Control (Closure, Change Control)

24

Quality Standard

defines boundaries between un/acceptable
should be appropriate to meet C. Expectations (but can be constrained by operational factors)
Sources - benchmarking, benefit Analysis etc.

25

Measuring Service Quality

Tangibility – Provider physical characteristics
Reliability – Adequate and constant performance Responsiveness – Willingness to solve
Assurance – Competence, credibility
Empathy – Put yourself in your customer’s shoes