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Flashcards in Session 4 - Methods of Production Deck (21)
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1

Product- Process Matrix

framework representing when diff. production process types are typically used
describe Layout Strategies
this depends on:
a) production volume (low --> high)
b) Standardisation (low (one-of-kind) --> high (commodity))

2

PP Matrix
Extremes

high volume &Low Stand.
--> Mass Customisation
low volume &High Stand.
--> Inefficient Process

3

A. Layout Strategies
1. PROJECT LAYOUT
Building Construction

Low Volume &Low Stand.
setup which product remain at one location
Equipment is moved to the product

4

A. Layout Strategies
2. WORK CENTER
(Toy Industry)

Low Volume &Product Stand.
(variety of non-stand products)
sometimes referred to as departments
focus on part. types of operations
similar equipment/functions are grouped together
e.g. Toy industry you can find drilling machine in one area; plastic moulding in another and last painting area

5

A. Layout Strategies
3. MANUFACTURING CELL
(Computer Chip Manufacturer)

middle Volume &Prod. Stand
dedicated area in which group of similar products are produced
cells are schedules to produce as needed in response to C. demand
assembly to work
Biggest "Area"

6

A. Layout Strategies
4. ASSEMBLY LINE
(Beers/Car Manufacturer)

High Volume &High Stand.
set up in which an item produced through a fixed sequence of workstations
designed to achieve a specific production rate

7

A. Layout Strategies
5. CONTINUOUS PROCESS
(Petroleum, Chemical, Drugs)

High Volume &High Stand.
production follows a predetermined sequence of steps but flow is continuous (not discrete)
process that converts RM into finished Production in one continuous process (hard to stop)
machine operating 24h to avoid expensive shutdowns or startups

8

B. Main Methods of Organising Production
1. JOB PRODUCTION

made from start to finish before another is made
made to C. own requirements in unique o one-off product
usually handmade (very skilled) and low volume
Example: Architects, Road or Ship Builders

9

B1. Job Production
Advantages

Higher Quality;
Employees can be better motivated (high job satisfaction);
flexible production method;
uniqueness

10

B. Main Methods of Organising Production
2. BATCH

group of identical products are made an any point in time
all products (same batch) move to next stage at same time
machinery/equipment can be cleaned/changed between batches to produce diff. products
Example - CAKE

11

B2. Batch Production
Advantages

cost saving due to buying in bulk
batches can be modified (still allows C. for some choice), products can be worked on by spec. staff at each stage, large volume

12

B1. Job Production
Disadvantages

long time;
high cost of labour;
close consultation with client;
usually reliant on high skills

13

B2. Batch Production
Disadvantages

Each stage needs to be prepared
take time to switch from one stage to next
requires to maintain higher stock of RM and work-in- process
Task may become boring (repetitive)
size of batch depends --> capacity allocated

14

B. Main Methods of Organising Production
3. FLOW PRODUCTION

parts are added to products whilst it moves along the production line
Line Production - final product is completed by the time end of production line
continuous movement of production through line (identical products)
Example: Cars; Aeroplane

15

B3. Flow Production
Advantages

reduce cost per unit - due to improved wok &material flow
suitable for manufacture of large quantities
capital intensive - work continuously
less need fo trained skills
faster production time

16

B3. Flow Production
Disadvantages

high technical costs
long set up time &reliant on high quality machinery
high RM &finished stocks unless lean production used
Mass production --> less differentiation for Customer
Production is shut down if flow is stopped

17

B. Main Methods of Organising Production
4. PROCESS PRODUCTION

Involves series of processes in which RM pass through
End Results = large quantities of finished products
Example: Oil refining, Cement

18

B4. Process Production
Advantages

Automated Process - reduces unit costs
large quantities
Ideal for products which have to ve of a consisten quality

19

B4. Process Production
Disadvantages

heavy investment requires in process design &production equipment/facilities
Difficult/disruptive if production process has to be stopped
Little Opportunity ti make different versions of the product

20

Process Selection

strategic decision of selecting which kind of production processes to use to produce specific P&S
format by which facility is

21

Manufacturing Processes
Types

Product- Process Matrix
format by which facility is arranged will be defined
--> general pattern of workflow
--> 5 basic structures