Separating substances, paper 1 Flashcards Preview

Chemistry > Separating substances, paper 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Separating substances, paper 1 Deck (20)
Loading flashcards...
1

...ide

If the compound has no oxygen.

2

...ate

If the compound has oxygen

3

Solid —> liquid

Melting

4

Liquid —> gas

Evaporation

5

Gas —> liquid

Condensation

6

Liquid —> solid

Freezing

7

Solid —> gas

Sublimation

8

Gas —> solid

Deposition

9

Properties of solids:

- particles vibrate around fixed positions.
- particles are close together.
- particles are arranged regularly.

10

Properties of liquids:

- Particles can move around each other.
- particles are close together.
- particles are randomly arranged.

11

Properties of gas:

- particles can move freely around each other.
- particles are far apart.
- particles move quickly in all directions.

12

A pure element changing state on a graph

Up in a diagonal line the horizontal then up in a diagonal line then horizontal again then up in another diagonal line. This is due to the element changing state on the horizontal bits, element changes state all at the same time. HORIZONTAL!!

13

A impure element changing state on a graph.

Up in a diagonal line, then up in another diagonal line with a lesser gradient, this repeats once more. It is unsure due to the second diagonal line not being horizontal as different elements melt and boil at different points.

14

Filtration

Funnel, with filter paper in with residue in, beaker at the bottom with the solvent in however it could have a solute in as well, this bottom bit is called the filtrate. Residue has to be insoluble, solute is soluble.

15

Crystallisation

(Bunsen burner setup) with boiling water on the gause. With a evaporating basin on that. In the evaporating basin there is a solute and solvent, the solvent would get evaporated and often leaves crystals of the solute.

16

Paper chromatography

- separates soluble substances.
- uses chromatography paper.
- solvent you use effects how far the ink/substance will go.
- mobile phase is ink.
- DRAW LINE IN PENCIL.
- stationary phase is paper.
- solvent front is where the solvent reached.

17

Rf formulae:

Ff = distance moved by compound
—————————————
Distance moved by solvent.

18

Why use Distillation ?

- used to separate two liquids from each other.
- liquids must have different boiling points.

19

Distillation:

(Bunsen burner setup) with a conical flask on top with mixture in.
With a delivery tube connecting it to a test tube in a beaker with ice in it.

20

Drinking water stages.

-Big metal bars get rid of big objects.
-Sediment tank, gets rid of sand, soil.
-Aluminium sulphate and lime are added to bind small particles so they sink.
- water passes through sieve.
- chlorine added to kill bacteria.
- Ph of water is checked to make sure its neutral.