Section 7 - Nuclear Physics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Section 7 - Nuclear Physics Deck (16)
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1

What are the three types of radiation?

Alpha
Beta
Gamma

2

What is the chance of an alpha particle being deflected passing through a foil of n layers?

1/10000n

3

How far can alpha radiation travel in air, why?

A few cm
Strongly ionising

4

How far can beta radiation travel in air, why?

A metre
Weakly ionising

5

Why does gamma radiation have such a weak ionising effect?

Photons carry no charge
Less effect than alpha or beta

6

Describe the particle tracks for alpha and beta in a cloud chamber

Alpha: straight tracks
Beta: wispy tracks

7

What is the count rate?

Number of counts per second

8

What must be measured first before a source's count rate is tested?

Background radiation

9

How do the types of radiation differ with absorption?

Alpha is absorbed by paper
Beta is absorbed by metal foil
Gamma is reduced by several cm of lead

10

What is contained in a Geiger-Muller tube?

Argon gas at low pressure

11

What is the purpose of the thin mica window in a Geiger-Muller tube?

Allows alpha and beta particles to enter the tube

12

What runs down the middle of the Geiger-Muller tube?

A metal rod at a positive potential

13

What happens when a particle of ionising radiation enters the GM tube?

Particle ionises gas atoms along its track
Negative ions attracted to the rod
Positive ions attracted to the wall
Ions produce further ions

14

How is a count recorded?

Ions cause a pulse of charge to pass round the circuit through a resistor
Pd pulse across resistor
Recorded as a count

15

How do the radiation types deflect in a magnetic field?

Alpha and beta deflect in opposite directions
Beta deflects more than alpha
Gamma is not deflected

16

Define intensity of radiation

The radiation energy per second passing normally through unit area