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Sociology A2 Unit 4 Crime and Deviance > Section 4 > Flashcards

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Victim surveys- sample of population either locally or nationally are asked which offences have been committed against them over a period of time.

advantages and disadvantages

Overcomes that a large number of crimes not recorded
Gives a good indication and extent of victimisation
Best known victimisation survey- British crime survey (annually)

-Recollection of victims memory can be distorted or faulty (low validity)
- despite these surveys being anonymous sexual crimes less reported
-Categorisation of crime left to the victims when filling out leads to inaccuracy


Self report survey-survey in which a selected group or a cross section of the public are asked what offences they committed

What are the advantages and disadvantages

Reveal offenders not caught by the police
Find hidden offenders
Find victimless crimes such as drug use

-Problem of validity respondents may lie
-Mostly focus on young people not others such as professional criminals therefore problem with representativeness
- relevance. Majority of crimes revealed tend to be trivial.


1)What does the chambliss report suggest about the police ?

2)Why would interpretivists argue that official statistics are a social construction

1)Bias towards. Idle class delinquents and are more against/abrasive towards working class delinquents

2)^^argue that this labelling reflects the accuracy of crime statistics and instead concentrates on how crime is socially constructed.


How may the media have an impact on crime statistics ?

Make one crime seem bigger than the other

Police told to concentrate on one crime e.g theft
The statistic of that crime will go up and the others will go down a little,


Measuring crime via surveys
When are police records published

Every 6 months
Only includes crimes reported to the police
Not valid for crimes such as sexual assault e.g rape or fraud or drugs



1what is it?
2)who's is most likely to be victims of crime

Study of victims in crime

18-24 black males most likely to be victim of crime.


Victimology background:

- growth in victimology since 1980's
- victims need confidence in the CJS or otherwise crimes won't be reported
- 1 in 4 people likely to be victims of crimes but we need to be more accurate than that.


Victimology official crime statistics

27% of 10-25 year olds are victims of personal crimes such as assault without injury and theft


Victimology official crime statistics

89% of do,estimated violence is committed by makes
Young males twice as much at risk of being a risk of violent crimes than young women (16-24)
92% of rape victims are women however 1 third is only reported
1 in 4 women victim of domestic violence
1in 6 men victim of domestic violence.


Victimology official crime statistics

Working class most likely to be victim of burglary
(Weaker doors no security system)


Victimology official crime statistics

18-24 black males most likely to be victim of crimes

Black and Asians 14 times more likely to be victim of racially ,violence related incidents than white people.


Victimology information sheet

- characteristics of victims
- hidden victim and offence
- attitudes of victims


British crime survey (a victimisation survey )

- annual survey as of 2001
- crimes may not be reported where crimes are trivial.
- find the occurrence of the crimes that have been reported


Characteristics of victims

Those living in the poorest areas are most subjective to crime

Women are more likely to be a victim of domestic violence and sexual crimes where else males are more likely to be involved in workplace and violent crimes.(16-24)

Young people more likely to be At risk of crime. Children underr 1 most likely to be murdered

Ethnic members at greater risk of crime than whites - especially from racial violence. The macpherson report (1999) following the murder of Stephen Lawrence found that ethnic minority's were over policed and underprotected.


Following the murder of Stephen Lawrence
What does the macpherson report suggest?

Ethnic minorities were over policed and under protected.

This can decrease the efficiency of how the CJS combats crime as ethnic minorities will be less likely to report the offences against. Them. Deriving themselves and the CJS system of the information.


Hidden victims and offences

- the British crime survey fails to record sexual crimes and domestic violence due to people feeling scared of embarrassed.
- only adults questions - offences against the young not accounted .


Attitudes to victims

Police magistrates and the judges have a conservative and. Used view towards the victims of crime.

Sympathetic of old pensioners if they had money stolen
Not if it was a black young man.


Official statistics can be a social construction as they don't only represent facts but include the social collection process of the interpretations of individuals ... Which two surveys:

Victim surveys
Self report surveys

(Triangulation is better)


What are the four key roles of the prison system?

Deterrence -
Want to deter acts of deviance (criminal activity).
Want to lower reoffenders
And stop general public from committing crimes.

Focus on the reintegration of criminals within society
Jobs training schemes
(Costs 9.5-13 billion per year for reoffenders).

To be incarcerated- held behind bars(within prison)
Stopping them from doing something.

Pay back something into society (new style of punishment)

Note that offenders facing victims is coming into play more often now.("I forgive you")


What is the role of the criminal justice system.

Question -->
Stop and search

Arrest -->

Charge -->
May be released with either formal (appear on criminal record ) or informed caution is only received if you plead guilty, and is shown on your criminal.

Bail/ remand in custody -->
Charge (if serious you are likely to be held in custody)

Trial -->
May be found not guilty at this point and drop out of the CJS

conviction -->
Can be a lifetime sentence

Can range from a fine to a lifetime.

Note that life license can be given where they would not be able to leave the country
Have regular meetings with probation officer
If broken go back to jail



ASBO's - 1998
For teenagers/youths
Anti-social behaviour order
Aim to Protect the public from behaviours causing distress or harm.

Individuals + police
Acceptable behaviour contract
There are serious to less serious prisons (A B D E and open prisons)
Incarceration of an individual's which means they are held
Aim to protect public

A form of surveillance which uses an electronic tag attached to a person
Monitor movements.
Aim is to ensure compliance with curfews and make sure a person does not breach their boundary.

FINES 1950
Criminal sanctions known as a penalty
To penalise an individual who has committed a crime. This preventing them from reoffending.

CURFEWS- 1950/60's
Regulation that requires people to remain indoors between specified hours.
Aim to produce q regulation that deters reoffending.

Community Sentences 2003 (CJS act)
A Service where by an offender is require d to prefer in community service to payback for his/her act of defiance.
Aim- to give back to the society for committing the act of deviance thus preventing reoffending.