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Define support.

Backing something up by providing reasons to accept it.


What is the difference between a:
• Challenge
• Repudiation
• Refutation

• Challenge -> A *question* that highlights a potential weakness in an argument.
• Refutation -> Giving reasons why an argument is wrong.
• Repudiation -> Saying an argument is wrong without giving reasons why.


What does drawing a conclusion mean?

Deciding what conclusion follows on from the reasons given.


When drawing a conclusion, is there only one possible conclusion?

No, there are several, but there is usually one that is most suitable.


When asked to identify the correct conclusion from multiple choice, what must you do?

Look at the options and decide which is:
• Supported by all of the reasons
• Doesn’t rely on anything outside of the reasons given


When asked to assess a possible conclusion, what factors must you consider?

• Does the conclusion rely on something not included in the reasons?
• Does the conclusion ignore one of the reasons?
• Is the conclusion supported by all the reasons?


What is an analogy?

When one thing is compared to another in order to persuade us that a claim that applies to one also applies to the other.


How does an analogy to work?

• Two things are compared
• The analogy persuades us that an accepted claim about one of the things must also apply to the other


How can an analogy be broken down to make it clearer?

Ask yourself:
• What two things are being compared?
• What similarity is the comparison based on?
• What is stated about one thing?
• What is then concluded about the other thing?


Break down this analogy:

“It’s ridiculous that gas companies are allowed to charge using estimated bills. It’s as if the supermarket cashier could guess the total cost from just looking at your trolley, and that obviously wouldn’t work.”

• Gas companies are compared to supermarkets.
• They both charge customers for their products.
• It would be ridiculous for a supermarket to charge customers using estimated bills.
• It’s ridiculous that gas companies charge using estimated bills.


What are some indicator phrases for analogies?

• Just like
• As if
• Similar to


What is a general principle?

A guideline or rule about behaviour that could be followed in many situations.


Give an example of a general principle.

“Never hit a child.”


What is it easy to confuse general principles with?

Advice about how to act in a specific situation.


Is this a general principle:

“I should be more patient with my nephews.”

No, because it is advice on how to act in a specific situation.


What are the different types of general principle?

• Moral or ethical
• Social
• Legal
• Practical


Name the argument element:

“You should never run with scissors.”

General principle


Do general principles have to apply to everyone?

• No, they may apply to only specific groups.
• e.g. “It is the parents’ responsibility to make sure their children get a good education.”


How are general principles used in arguments?

As reasons or conclusions.


State the general principle in:

“The banks are to blame for the financial crisis of 2008, because it was their mistake to allow such reckless borrowing and spending. Everyone should take responsibility for their own mistakes. Therefore, the banks should take responsibility and apologise for the consequences of their actions.”

“Everyone should take responsibility for their own mistakes.”


State the general principle in:

“Cars can kill or severely harm you, even if they’re driving at 30 mph. Drivers are paying attention to the road and don’t expect people to step out in front of them. So pedestrians should always be very aware of what’s going on around them.”

“Pedestrians should always be very aware of what’s going on around them.”


What are some indicator words for general principles?

• Right
• Wrong
• Unfair
• Should
• Always
• Never


How can you be certain that something is a general principle?

It is advice on how to act that is relevant in MANY DIFFERENT SITUATIONS.


When asked to pick a general principle that most strengthens the reasoning in an argument, what must you do?

• Check to see which are a general principle
• Check to see which are relevant to the argument


When asked to think of a general principle that supports an argument, what must you be careful to do?

Think of something that is relevant to the conclusion, but general enough to be a general principle.


What is an explanation?

Something that tries to improve understanding of something by describing why it is the case.


What is the difference between an argument and an explanation?

• Argument -> Tries to persuade the reader that something is true
• Explanation -> Describes why something is true, because the reader accepts that it is true but might not understand why


Remember to revise the difference between an explanation and argument.

Pg 41 of revision guide.


Name this occurrence:

“Jo won’t win a trophy this year because a goat ate all her tulips, so she doesn’t have anything to enter in the competition.”

Explanation -> This explains why Jo won’t win.


How are explanations used in arguments?

They may be used to support reasons.

(See pg 41 of revision guide)