Section 1 - The Language of Reasoning Flashcards Preview

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31

Find and name the counter-element:

"My friend thinks Light-Hearted Love Romp, that film with Brad DiPaprio in it, will be really entertaining, but him last film was boring, and he's not fit at all. Moody Vampire Angst would be much more enjoyable."

COUNTER-ASSERTION:
"My friend thinks Light-Hearted Love Romp, that film with Brad DiPaprio in it, will be really entertaining"
DISMISSAL:
"but him last film was boring, and he's not fit at all. Moody Vampire Angst would be much more enjoyable."

32

Find and name the counter-element:

"It could be argued that exams must be getting easier because the percentage of A grades is increasing. However, it's more likely that this increase is due to improvements in teaching in the last ten years."

COUNTER-ARGUMENT:
"It could be argued that exams must be getting easier because the percentage of A grades is increasing."
DISMISSAL:
"However, it's more likely that this increase is due to improvements in teaching in the last ten years."

33

Why do counter-assertions and counter-arguments have the same common notation?

Because they preform the same role.

34

What is the difference between a counter-argument and a counter-assertion?

• A counter-argument is a whole argument - it has at least one reason and conclusion.
• A counter-assertion is just a statement without any supporting reasons.

NOTE: This refers to the counter-element, NOT its dismissal!

35

Remember to revise the difference between a counter-argument and counter-assertion.

Pg 8 of revision guide.

36

What steps must be taken when asked to find the counter-argument/counter-assertion in an argument?

1) Make sure you know the conclusion of the argument
2) Look for reasons/statements that go against this
3) Also, look out for counter-element indicator words

37

Name some counter-assertion/counter-argument indicator words.

• Despite this
• It has been claimed
• However
• Contrary to this
• Although
• Some people argue

38

What is hypothetical reasoning?

A claim saying that if one thing happens, then something else will happen.

39

What are the two key words often found in hypothetical reasoning?

If...Then

40

In hypothetical reasoning, are the words "if" and "then" always seen?

No, and the order of the clauses may be reversed.

41

How may hypothetical reasoning be used?

• Reason
• Conclusion

42

Can hypothetical reasoning be used as a conclusion? Give an example.

Yes.

"So if I wear too much jewellery to school, then it will be confiscated."

43

When asked to give an example of hypothetical reasoning from the text and explain your answer, what is it important to remember?

• To explain WHY this is hypothetical reasoning.
• 'The consequence, "X", depends upon a conditional event, 'Y".'

44

What is an assumption?

An unstated reason that is needed for the argument to work.

45

How do assumptions relate to the conclusion?

• They are *necessary* to the conclusion.
• They are needed to connect the reasons to the conclusion.

46

How many assumptions can an argument have?

Several

47

Do assumptions make an argument weak?

Not necessarily - only if the assumptions are questionable.

48

State an assumption made:

"The weatherman said it's going to rain later, so you should pack an umbrella."

You will want to protect yourself from the rain and an umbrella is the best way to do that.

49

State an assumption made:

"As some of the students are allergic to goats, we shouldn't go to a petting zoo on the school trip."

The petting zoo will aggravate the students' allergies because it has goats.

50

What steps must be taken when finding an assumption made by an argument?

1) Identify the reasons and conclusion
2) Think about how the two are connected
3) Identify the missing steps that join the reasons to the conclusion

51

State an assumption made:

R1 - It is the police's duty to protect the public from danger.
R2 - High-speed chases are the only way to catch some criminals.
C - Therefore, high-speed chases are needed so police can do their duty.

A significant proportion of criminals are more dangerous to the public than high-speed chases.

52

In the following assumption, why is "a significant proportion of criminals" used instead of "all criminals"?

“A significant proportion of criminals are more dangerous to the public than high-speed chases."

This ensures that the assumption isn't too strong.

53

State an assumption made:

R1 - Students need to be studying literature that improves their grasp of today's language.
R2 - The language in Shakespeare's plays is centuries old, and students are often unable to understand the basic meaning, let alone the subtle wordplay and imagery.
C - Therefore, Shakespeare should be dropped from the syllabus in favour of more modern texts.

• Shakespeare has no other educational benefits.
• There is not room on the syllabus for both modern texts and Shakespeare.

54

What must you be careful of when formulating assumptions?

Making sure that they aren't:
• Too strong
• Too weak
• Irrelevant

55

What is wrong with the formulated assumption:
"All criminals are more dangerous than high-speed chases"?

It is too strong.

56

What is wrong with the formulated assumption:
“A few criminals might be more dangerous than high-speed chases"?

It is too weak.

57

How can you ensure that the assumption you formulate isn't too weak or too strong?

• Use phrases like: "a significant proportion", "many" and "a large number"
• Check whether the assumption seems realistic

58

What is the "Opposite Test" used for?

Checking that assumptions are necessary to make an argument work.

59

Describe the "Opposite Test".

1) State the reasons given in the text.
2) Insert the exact opposite of the assumptions identified.
3) Then see if the conclusion still follows from the reasons -> It shouldn't, if the assumptions are necessary.

60

Remember to revise the "Opposite Test".

Pg 11 of the revision guide.