Flashcards in Seafood Hygiene/Food preservation Deck (46)
What is included in "seafood"?
Fresh or saltwater finfish, crustaceans, all mollusks, other forms of aquatic life - gator, frogs, aquatic turtles, sea urchin etc
_____ officially makes regulations for seafood, but regulations are limited in effectiveness
Many plants "fly under the radar"
What health safety process is required for all US seafood plants?
Who handles the voluntary seafood inspection program (VSIP)?
Dep. of commerce - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
What is the goal of VSIP?
The focus is on inspection for QUALITY and sanitation
certification program for international export
HACCP training and assistance is also offered
*products from processing plants in the inspection program will be stamped
What is one of the biggest problems with seafood that can lead to illness?
What health risks are associated with consuming seafood?
infectious dzs, parasites, natural toxins,chemical contaminants
T/F: Since catfish is seafood, it is regulated by the FDA
Although it is seafood, it is regulated under the USDA
What causes the most illnesses associated with seafood consumption?
Toxins from bacteria (not necessarily the bacteria itself)
What bacteria is often is most often involved with seafood consumption illness? *often occurs when eating raw fish or shellfish from warmer coastal waters*
Vibriosis (Vibrio vulnificus + parahaemolyticus)
These are "halophilic" bacteria - require salt
**This can also be contracted through skin wounds in warm coastal waters
What viruses are associated with seafood consumption illnesses?
Hepatitis A and Norovirus
What parasites are associated with seafood consumption illnesses?
Tapeworms: Diphyllobothrium spps (D. latum)
Nematodes: Anisakis spp, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Capillaria philippinensis
Trematodes: Liver flukes, lung flukes (paragonimus spp), Intestinal flukes (many species - 3 genra)
What is the MOT of vibriosis?
Vehicle: raw, improperly cooked seafood/oysters
Direct: Infection of wounds while walking or swimming in contaminated water
What clinical signs are associated with vibriosis?
Dhr, cramps, vomiting, fever
*incubation 4-96 hours
*more common in the summer when the waters are warm
What actions can be taken to prevent vibiosis?
*proper handling and storage of seafood
**close waters for fishing and swimming when vibrio is present
Who are the intermediate hosts for Diphyllbothrium latum?
Fish like trout, perch, salmon, and pike
*fish that travel between fresh and salt water are more susceptible
*when small fish are eaten by larger fish -the larvae migrates into the muscle of the larger fish
Who are the definitive hosts of D. latum?
Many mammal species: humans, canids, felids, etc
What clinical signs may be present in a human with D. latum?
Minor bloating and anemia
What is the MOT to humans of D. latum?
Vehicle: raw infected fresh water or anadromous fish: ceviche, sushi, pickled herring
**Scandinavia, Russia, Baltics, Pacific Northwest, Japan
How do you prevent D. latum infections?
COOK or freeze fish (blast freeze for 15 hours or freeze for 7 days )
What is the life cycle of Anisakis spp? (nematode) How are humans infected?
Intermediate hosts: crustaceans eaten by fish or squid
Definitive hosts: Marine mammals, humans --> adult worms live burrowed into the stomach lining
MOT: humans eat raw infected fish - ceviche, sushi, pickled herring (salmon, herring, halibot, cod, squid, etc)
What clinical signs are associated with human infections of Anisakis spps?
Tingling in throat, cough up or pull out a worm
Invades stomach wall --> acute abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, dhr, can mimic Crohn's or stomach cancer
**FYI - prevention is the same as D. Latum - cook or freeze fish
T/F: Humans infected with Anisakis spps usually have a large worm load
**usually only one worm per person
How are humans infected with fish-borne trematodes?
Ingestions of variable trematode metacercariae
source = FRESH water fish, mollusks, or crabs
Who are the intermediate and definitive hosts of fish borne trematodes?
Intermediate = snails or mollusks are the first stage --> they are consumed by freshwater fish and then encyst in the muscle (second stage)
Definitive: Humans and other mammals
*eggs passed into water in human or mammal feces
What is the MOT of fish borne flukes to humans and what clinical signs are associated with infections?
Vehicle: raw/undercooked infected fresh water fish, crayfish, crustaceans, salted or smoked fish
Clinical signs: related to liver damage by flukes - leading to cirrhosis +/- carcinoma
Where are fish borne trematode infections most common?
Asia and eastern Europe
What actions can be taken to prevent fish borne trematode infections?
Target reservoirs - treat infected hosts---> people, pigs, dogs, cats, etc
Target vehicle - prevent fecal contamination of water, proper sewage tx and management, cook or freeze fresh water fish and seafood, don't feed uncooked table scraps containing seafood to animals
Who is the intermediate hose of Paragonimus spps of lung flukes?
snail --> crab or crayfish
MOT = raw or under cooked freshwater crab or crayfish