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1

Johannes Muller

university of berlin- wanted to separate anatomy and physiology - early person tied to scientific transformation

2

students of muller called for what?

physiology based on chemistry and physics

3

Rudolf Virchow

conceived cell as center of pathologic process

4

who wrote "Die Cellularpatholgie"? and what was significance?

Rudolf Virchow -- ended hippocratic humoral physiology (4 humors)

5

Ignaz Semmelweiss

obstetrician- noted puerperal fever and had doctors wash hands in chlorine solution which reduced outbreaks -died of sepsis

6

Louis Pasteur

researcher- did much to prove microorganisms are responsible for disease, putrification, fermentation

7

germ theory of disease

louis pasteur- microorganisms responsible for diseases

8

Joseph Lister

understood pasteur's research-antiseptic surgery- planned for patient to be exposed to infection so used things to kill infections (carbolic acid)

9

Robert Koch

made bacteriology a real science "Koch's postulates" - led to discovery of many microorganisms- cholera, tuberculosis -won nobel prize for his work (working off pasteur and lister)

10

early anesthesia

mid 19th century- ethyl ether, chloroform, NO

11

Crawford Long

MD-first to use ether in public demonstration- no credit

12

Horace Wells

DDS- first to use NO- did not work

13

William TG Morton

Wells' partner- wrongly credited with first ether demonstration (was really Long)

14

James Simpson

MD- first use of chloroform and discovered it!- used in childbirth

15

"Century of Surgery"

~1870 now had anesthesia and surgery became "heroic" specialty with increased optimism

16

Theodor Billroth

many firsts in surgery- refined Listerian antiseptics -new abdominal surgeries -took daily temps of patients after surgery

17

William Halsted

student of Billroth- first to use rubber gloves in surgery -teacher of many 20th century physicians (SL Still)

18

Karl Roentgen

discovered x-ray using Crooke's tube 1895

19

Marie and Pierre Curie

discovered Polonium and Radium- Radium used against cancer Nobel Prize

20

Willem Einthoven

EKG inventor- Nobel prize

21

Original cardiographs used...

saline solution to get electric signal