Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders Deck (65)
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1

Psychosis

A broader term, reflected in the diagnostic category. In general, “psychosis” refers to a disconnection from reality (Used to often by general population as a broad term)

2

Schizophrenia

A specific diagnosis (in the psychosis category) that is often severe and involves a wide variety of symptoms. There used to be “subtypes” for schizophrenia, but now it’s one unified diagnosis in DSM-5;

3

The severity of Schizophrenia is increased by...

A variety of symptoms, the frequency, and the intensity of each

4

Those with Psychosis don't differentiate well between...

Fact and Fiction

5

Schizophrenia is NOT...

MULTIPLE PERSONALITIES! People often confuse this diagnosis with DID; Schizophrenia involves detachment from reality, cognitive impairment, and problems with mood and socializing, rather than alter personalities…

6

Schizophrenia: The Core Symptoms

-Positive Symptoms
-Cognitive Symptoms
-Disorganized or Abnormal Motor Behavior (Rare)
-Negative Symptoms

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What is the difference between Positive and Negative Symptoms?

Positive: Extra experiences that don't happen to normally functioning individuals
Negative: Less experiences, Don't function as a normal person would because they are missing

8

Positive symptoms are:

Active manifestations of abnormal behavior; Experiences that most “normal” people would never report or exhibit

9

Positive Symptoms

Delusions and Hallucinations

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Delusions

False and sometimes bizarre beliefs that are held firmly and consistently; Often include themes of grandeur or persecution, among other themes (Beliefs that are simply not true)

11

Hallucinations

Experience of sensory events without environmental input; Can affect all 5 senses, but auditory are most common

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Individuals experiencing Delusions usually become distressed when...

They are told they are wrong or beliefs become upsetting

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Types of Delusions

Bizarre (Aliens), Non-bizarre (Cheating)

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Hallucinations are...

Sensory events; Can become distressing because nobody else notices it

15

Cognitive Symptoms

Problems with thinking, speech, and communication (Disorganized Speech); Often see problems with attention and memory as well

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Disorganized speech can include: (Cognitive Symptoms)

“Word Salad” or Loose associations/tangential speech

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“Word Salad” (Cognitive Symptoms)

Trying to communicate but words are jumbled up (medication can help)

18

Loose Associations/Tangential Speech (Cognitive Symptoms)

Speech is jumbled but more coherent, can follow flow of words but they make no sense ("Tornados are bad like elevators that malfunction, power tools malfunction, have you ever used a saw before?")

19

Disorganized or Abnormal Motor Behavior

These are RARE symptoms, but experienced by some patients… The most common motor disturbance in SZ is catatonia, which can present in different ways

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Types of Catatonia

-Excited Catatonia
-Withdrawn Catatonia
-Peculiar Postures (e.g., waxy flexibility)

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Excited Catatonia

All over the place

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Withdrawn Catatonia

Immobility while sitting or standing

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Peculiar Postures

Waxy flexibility: Usually seen in state of withdrawn catatonia, weird or abnormal posture (rare)

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Negative Symptoms =

Absence or insufficiency of normal behavior

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Examples of Negative Symptoms:

-Avolition (or apathy)
-Alogia
-Asociality
-Abnormal Affect

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Avolition (or apathy)

Failure to initiate activity

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Alogia

Relative absence of speech (usually during catatonia)

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Asociality

Lack of interest in socializing

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Abnormal Affect

Often flattened or atypical (how someone displays there emotions) Usually makes them hard to read

30

To be diagnosed with Schizophrenia Two or more of the following for at least one month:

a) hallucinations, b) delusions, c) catatonia, d) disorganized speech, or e) negative symptoms
(and one must be a, b, or c)
-Major impairment in functioning since the onset of the symptoms (i.e., obvious “decompensation” over time)
-Ongoing disturbance for at least 6 months total (with at least one continuous month of features seen in #1)